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SMPSComp_031809

SMPSComp_031809

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Published by Pas Pushpa Kumara

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Published by: Pas Pushpa Kumara on Jun 27, 2010
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Page 1
 ©2006 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. SMPS Components and their Affects on System Design Slide 1
SMPS Componentsand their effects onSystem Design
The choice of components used in a switch mode power supply can greatlyaffect the performance and reliability of a design. Transistors are not idealswitches, the capacitors behave like resistors, and the inductors andtransformers can transform themselves into “shorts”.The following slides will provide some insight into how transistor, diode,inductor, transformer, and capacitor characteristics can affect the overalldesign of SMPS applications.
 
Page 2
 ©2006 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. SMPS Components and their Affects on System Design Slide 2
Session Agenda
G
MOSFET characteristics
G
Diode characteristics
G
Capacitor issues
G
Magnetic components
G
Printed circuit board recommendations
This is the agenda for this coarse.The various loss mechanisms for MOSFETs will be discussed, as well assecondary issues such as the “Miller Effect”.The loss mechanisms for diodes will be described, and recommendations fordiode selection will be made.Capacitors, which never function like ideal devices, will be discussed. Theircharacteristics are closely intertwined with SMPS circuit design.The behavior of magnetic components, such as transformers and inductors,can vary widely. We will cover some the major issues.And last but not least, are recommendations for printed circuit board (PCB)design to enhance SMPS system performance.
 
Page 3
 ©2006 Microchip Technology Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. SMPS Components and their Affects on System Design Slide 3
P
loss
= P
conduction
+ P
switching
P
conduction
= (I
D
)
2
R
ds(hot)
DP
switching
= (V
I
D
 / 2)
(T
on
+ T
off
)
F
sw
+(C
oss
V
2
F
sw
)
Where: D = Duty cycle, F
sw
= Switching FrequencyC
oss
= Transistor Output Capacitance
MOSFET Losses
simplified
The MOSFET is a common choice as the “switch”for smps applications,they are easy to drive and have fast switching times.The power dissipated in a MOSFET is the conduction losses and theswitching losses. The conduction loss is the I2R loss. When readingMOSFET device specifications, use the R
DS(on)
specification at the expectedoperating junction temperature. The R
ds
value is highly temperaturedependent.The switching losses are primarily due to the “Cross Over”losses that occurbecause the switching time for a transistor is non zero. As a transistor isturning on or off, the current is flowing through the transistor, and the voltageacross the transistor is transitioning between the supply voltage and thedevice’s saturation voltage. The energy dissipated is equal to the averageapplied voltage times the average current times the time spent in theswitching process. Reducing the switching time reduces switching losses.Additionally, there are losses due to the stored charge in the transistor’soutput capacitance (Coss) that is discharged when the transistoris turnedon. Usually, the losses due to the output capacitance are small.There is another loss not shown on this slide associated with switching, thegate drive circuit. Power is dissipated in the FET gate driver to charge anddischarge the MOSFET gate capacitance. In most applications, the gatedriver loss is not significant.Switching losses are directly proportional to switching frequency.

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