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Voltage Doubler

Voltage Doubler

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Published by Elmer Rey

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Published by: Elmer Rey on Jun 27, 2010
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03/24/2013

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Voltage doubler
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to:navigation,search  A
voltage doubler
is an electric circuit with anACinput and aDCoutput of roughly twice the  peak input voltage. They are a variety of voltage multiplier circuit and are often, but not always,a single stage of a general form of such circuits. The term is usually applied to circuits consistingof rectifyingdiodesandcapacitorsonly, other means of doubling voltages are not included.
Contents
[hide]
y
 
1
Villard circuit 
y
 
2
Greinacher circuit 
y
 
3
Bridge circuit 
y
 
4
See also 
y
 
5
Notes 
y
 
6
References 
[
edit] Villard circuit
The Villard circuit consists simply of a capacitor and a diode. While it has the great benefit of simplicity, its output has very poor ripplecharacteristics. Essentially, the circuit is a diodeclamp  circuit. The capacitor is charged on the negative half cycles to the peak AC voltage (
 pk 
). Theoutput is the superposition of the input AC waveform and the steady DC of the capacitor. Theeffect of the circuit is to shift the DC value of the waveform. The negative peaks of the ACwaveform are "clamped" to 0V (actually í
F
, the small forward bias voltage of the diode), so the positive peaks of the output waveform are
2
 pk 
. The peak-to-peak ripple is an enormous
2
 pk 
andcannot besmoothedunless the circuit is effectively turned into one of the more sophisticatedforms.
[
1
]
 
[
edit] Greinacher circuit
 
 The Greinacher voltage doubler is a significant improvement over the Villard circuit for a smallcost in increased components. The ripple is much reduced, being nominally zero under open-circuit load conditions, but, when current is being drawn, depends on the resistance of the loadand the value of the capacitors used. The circuit works by following a Villard cell stage withwhat is in essence a peak detector or envelope detector stage. The peak detector cell has the effect of removing most of the ripple while preserving the peak voltage in the output.Voltage quadrupler This circuit was first invented byHeinrich Greinacher in
1913
(published
1914
[
2
]
) in order to provide the
2
00± 
3
00 V he needed for his newly inventedionometer , the
11
0V a.c. supplied bytheZurichpower stations of the time being insufficient.
[
3
]
He later (
192
0) extended this idea intoa cascade of multipliers.
[
4
]
This cascade of Greinacher cells is often inaccurately referred to as aVillard cascade. It is also called aCockcroft±Walton multiplier after the particle accelerator   machine built byJohn CockcroftandErnest Walton, who independently rediscovered the circuit in
1932
.
[
5
]
 The concept in this topology can be extended to a voltage quadrupler circuit by using twoGreinacher cells of opposite polarities driven from the same a.c. source. The output is takenacross the two individual outputs. Note that, like a bridge circuit, it is not possible tosimultaneously ground both the input and output of this circuit
[
6
]
 
[
edit] Bridge circuit
Half-wave voltage doubler 
 
The
D
elon circuit
uses a bridge topologyfor voltage doubling. This form of circuit was, at onetime, commonly found incathode ray tubetelevision sets where it was used to provide ane.h.t.  voltage supply. Generating voltages in excess of 
5
kV with a transformer has safety issues interms of domestic equipment and in any case is not economic. However, black and whitetelevision sets required an e.h.t. of 
1
0kV and colour sets even more. Voltage doublers were usedto either double the voltage on an e.h.t winding on the mains transformer or were applied to thewaveform on the lineflyback coils.
[7][8]
 Full-wave voltage doubler The circuit consists of two half-wave peak detectors, functioning in exactly the same way as the peak detector cell in the Greinacher circuit above. Each of the two peak detector cells operateson opposite half-cycles of the incoming waveform. Since their outputs are in series, the output istwice the peak input voltage.A full-wave version of this circuit has the advantage of lower peak diode currents, improvedripple and better load regulation but requires a centre-tap to the transformer as well as morecomponents.
[
9
]
 
Voltage Doubler
This is a simple voltage doubler circuit which has the output voltage is 2xVin

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