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Cs103x Notes

Cs103x Notes

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Published by: conspiracykc on Jun 27, 2010
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Discrete StructuresLecture Notes
Vladlen Koltun
1
Winter 2008
1
Computer Science Department, 353 Serra Mall, Gates 374, Stanford University, Stanford, CA94305, USA;
vladlen@stanford.edu
.
 
Contents
1 Sets and Notation 1
1.1 Dening sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Set operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3 More sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Induction 5
2.1 Introducing induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.2 Strong induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.3 Why is the induction principle true? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3 More Proof Techniques 11
3.1 Proofs by contradiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113.2 Direct proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4 Divisibility 15
4.1 The division algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154.2 Remainders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164.3 Greatest common divisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174.4 Greatest common divisors and linear combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5 Prime Numbers 21
5.1 The fundamental theorem of arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215.2 The innity of primes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
6 Modular Arithmetic 25
6.1 Congruences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256.2 Modular division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7 Relations and Functions 31
7.1 Ordered pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317.2 Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327.3 Kinds of relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327.4 Creating relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347.5 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
8 Mathematical Logic 37
8.1 Propositions and predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378.2 Quantiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
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