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Product Blending Calculation

Product Blending Calculation

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Published by vijey1980
Blending of petroleum products
Blending of petroleum products

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Published by: vijey1980 on Jun 27, 2010
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01/13/2015

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CHM 3602Petroleum Refining Process
Product Blending
Refinery operations - basic intermediate streamCan be blended to produce• a variety of on-specification finished products• operating flexibility• profits
Blending
One of the final operations in refining, in which two or more different components are mixed together toobtain the desired range of properties in the finished product
Objectives :To allocate the available blending componentTo meet product demands and specificationTo produce incremental productsTo maximise overall profitsMaintenanceComputer-controlled in-line blendingfor blending gasoline + high-volume productsInventories, cost and physical properties data
Stream Analysers
To ensure blended streams meet the desired specifications• Boiling point (C4– 193
°
C)• Specific gravity• Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP)• Research and Motor octane (RON and MON)
Reid Vapour Pressure (RVP)
Preliminary cost evalution :Calculations are not at intermediates changes.Blending stocks – boiling ranges within the product specification, control criteria and octane requirementMeasure of the vapour pressure of a sample at 38
°
C in a volume of air four times the liquid volumeAs indication of the vapour-lock tendency of a motor gasoline, as well as explosion and evaporation hazardsCarried out in the USA : ASTM Method D 323n-butane (RVP 358 kPa), isobutane (RVP 490 kPa)n-butane is preferred for blending into gasoline to regulate vapour pressure
Calculation of RVP
The desired RVP of a gasoline is obtained by blendingn-butane with C5-193
°
C naphthaThe amount of n-butane required to give the needed RVP
Dr Basyar Rahman1
 
CHM 3602Petroleum Refining Process
Mt(RVP)t=
Mi(RVP)iMt= total moles blended product(RVP)t= specification RVP for product, psi or kPaMi= moles of component i(RVP)i= RVP of component i, psi or kPaExamplen-butane : MW = 58, RVP = 52Calculate the flow rate (BPD) for a 10 psi RVP blendButane requirement :(2,179) (5.38) + M (52.0)= (2179 + M) (10)
Calculation of RVPblend 
Estimation of the average molecular weight of a refinery stream using vapour pressure blending indices (VPBI)(by Chevron)Approximately by the sum of all products of the volume fraction (v) multiply by the VPBI for each component(RVP)blend=
vi(VPBI)i(RVP)blend= specification RVP for productvi= volume fraction of component i(VPBI)i= RVP of component IVolume of the butane to be blended for a given RVP is desired:A(VPBI)a+ B(VPBI)b+ ----- + W(VPBI)w= (Y + W)(VPBI)m A = bbl of component a, etc.W = bbl of n-butane (w)Y = A + B + C + ---- (all compounds except n-butane)w = subscript indicating n-butane(VPBI)m= VPBI corresponding to the desired RVP of mixtureExampleCalculate the flow rate (BPD) of n-butane for a 10 psi RVPFor 10 psi RVP, (VPBI)m= 17.8Butane requirement :17.8 (21,000 + W) = 174,070 + 138W
Terminologies
Barrels = 42 gallonsBPCD (Barrels Per Calendar Day)Average flow rates based on operating days per yearBPSD (Barrels Per Stream Day)Flow rates based on actual on stream time of a unit or group of units.PBI (Pour Blending Index)An empirical quantity related to pour pointASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials)WHSV (Weight Hourly Space Velocity)Weight of feed per hour per weight of catalystLHSV (Liquid Hourly Space Velocity)Volume of liquid feed per hour per volume of catalyst
Dr Basyar Rahman2
 
CHM 3602Petroleum Refining Process
GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity)Volume of gas feed per hour per volume of catalystSpace Velocity :The volume (or weight) of gas/liquid passing through a given catalyst or reactor space unit time, divided by thevolume of catalyst through which the fluid passes. High space velocities correspond to short reaction times.
Octane blending
Based on volumetricUsing the blending octane numbers of the components(true octane number do not blend linearly)True Octane Number : octane number obtained using a Combined Feed Ration (CFR) test engine(ratio of total feed including recycle to fresh feed)Bt(ON)t=
Bi(ON)iBt= total gasoline blended, bbl(ON)t= desired octane of blendBi= bbl of component i(ON)i= blending octane number of component i
Octane Scale
Used to rate the octane no. of gasolineNumbered from 0 – 120.3 (arbitrary number)The scale is defined by 3 difference materials:1. n-heptane assigned to 02. Isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane)3. Mixture of isooctane and tetraethyl lead (6 ml of TEL per gallon in isooctane is assingned to 120.3)
Tetraethyl Lead (TEL)
Used to increase the octane of the blend ;Necessary to calculate the amount that must be added to produce the desired leaded-product octaneEffectivenessDecreases with concentrationCalculate the quantity of TEL needed (special graph)Pb(OC2H5)4= antiknock agentBlending for other propertiesEstimating the physical propertiesSubstitute for the value of the inspection to be blended another value which has the property of blendingapproximately linearTypes of blending factors (or index numbers) :1. Viscosity2. Flash point3. Aniline point4. Vapour pressures
Blending Method
Applied to bulk batch or in-line mixing of two or more crude or process stocks to form a compositeintermediate or finished product
Dr Basyar Rahman3

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