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Palestinian Refugee Factsheet

Palestinian Refugee Factsheet

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www.paestinecapaign.g
Palestinian refugeesand the Right of Return
Who are the Palestinian refugees?
T
he Paestinian eugees ae the indigenus Aab inhabitants  histic Paestine (what isnw Isae, the ccupied West Bank and theGaza Stip), wh wee dispaced  expeed thei igina hes, and thei descendants. Thehave neve been awed t etun t thei hesand nw cpise ne  the wd’s agest eugeeppuatins. The ae the ngest sueing t— 2008 aks the 60th annivesa  thei initiadispssessin.Tda thee ae e than seven iin Paestinianeugees exied aund the gbe. The nube is adeup  thee gups: thse wh wee ade eugeesbee and duing the 1948 Aab-Isaei wa; thse whwee ade eugees duing the 1967 ‘Six Da Wa’; andthse wh wee ade eugees as a esut  picies the Isaei gvenent, picies that aunt t ‘w-intensit ppuatin tanse’.
 The Nakba
F
 hundeds  eas, a sa Jewish cunithad ived peaceu as pat  the geneaPaestinian ppuatin. Hweve, the Bitishpic  awing assive Jewish iigatin ed tising tensins between the Zinist cnises and theindigenus Aab ppuatin. The UN Genea Assebpassed esutin 181 n 19 Nvebe 1947, withutthe ageeent  the Paestinian pepe. The esutinecended that Paestine be divided int twstates: ne Aab and ne Jewish.Even bee patitin was due t take eect, theZinists aunched ‘Pan Daet’, a iita capaign tdest Paestinian viages and take ve the twns.SPrING 2008
Map — Walid Khalidi, All That Remains: the Palestinian villages occupied and depopulated in 1948. Institute for Palestine Studies, Washington DC, 1992.
Numbers
• It is dicut t cacuate the nube Paestinian eugees with tta accuac. This isdue t the absence  a cpehensive sste egisteing the eugees; the secndadispaceent  the eugees, which hasesuted  changing pitica and ecniccicustances; and the ack  a uni denitin a Paestinian eugee.• Hweve, it has been estiated that thee aenw e than 7 iin Paestinian eugees anddispaced pesns.• The eugees ake up the ajit  thetta Paestinian ppuatin — 70 pecent Paestinians ae eugees.• The cpise the agest singe gup eugees in the wd; in act ast ne in theeeugees is Paestinian.
1
• Appxiate 4.5 iin 1948 eugees andthei descendants ae egisteed with the UN
2
. Anestiated 1.54 iin 1948 eugees and theidescendants ae nt egisteed.• The Paestinian eugees  1967 and theidescendants nube 950,000.• Thee ae 338,000 1948 intena dispacedPaestinians and thei descendants iving in Isae,with citizenship but unabe t etun t theiigina hes and viages.• In the West Bank and Gaza Stip thee ae150,000 1967 intena dispaced pepe and theidescendants.PAlESTINE SolIDArITy CAmPAIGN FACTSHEET
refugee factsheet.indd 128/04/2008 09:26:34
 
www.paestinecapaign.gThe Paestinians ught back, and caed n the Aabcunties  suppt. Hep cae, but t itte, t ate.The Isaei state was estabished n 15 ma 1948, n78%  what had been Paestine. The Nakba, eaning‘catastphe’, is the nae the Paestinians give t theevents suunding the ceatin  Isae, in which 85pe cent  the Paestinian inhabitants  that aeabecae eugees: dispssessed, dispaced and exied.These events incuded panned acts  te bthe Isaei/Zinist iita ces, such as attacks nciviians, ting, and destuctin  ppet. manPaestinians fed ate heaing news  assaces andiita attacks n civiians in the viages. mane wee cib expeed  thei hes.Se eugees eained in Isae and eventuagained secnd-cass Isaei citizenship. Hweve,the eained intena dispaced, pevented etuning t thei igina hes and esiding insteadin ‘unecgnised’ viages, cpete unattended tb the gvenent. The ajit  the 1948 eugees,aund 750,000, wee exied t aeas utside  thestate  Isae.
3
  Ate the wa the Isaei iita ces peated a‘sht-t-ki’ pic ang the aistice ines in det pevent eugees  etuning. Anthe stategt pevent etun was the deitin  hundeds viages ate the igina inhabitants had fed.It has been eveaed b histians, incuding theIsaei acadeic Ian Pappe
4
, that the Nakba was theesut  a deteined pic  ethnic ceansing, tdive ut the Paestinian ppuatin and ensue theIsaei state wud have a age Jewish ajit.(
See the PSC Nakba factsheet for more information
 ).
 The ‘Six Day War’
D
uing the wa with Egpt in 1967 (as knwnas the ‘Six Da Wa’) Isae ccupied thePaestinian West Bank and the Gaza Stip.430,000  the ppuatin  these aeas becaeeugees, ast ha  the  a secnd tie.man  the eugees wee feeing ate attacksn civiian aeas, but panned t etun ate thehstiities had ceased. meanwhie tw pe cent West Bank and Gazan viages wee dested, inadditin t sevea eugee caps.
 The Right of Return inInternational Law
I
n additin t its cea a basis, the ight etun  Paestinian eugees has a sidundatin in intenatina aw and is enshinedin a nube  UN esutins:
Universal Declarain f Human Righs, Aricle13:
 
“Everyone has the right to leave any country,including his own, and to return to his country.”
Inernainal Cnvenin n he Eliminainf all frms f Racial Discriminain, Aricle 5:
 
“State parties undertake to prohibit and to eliminateracial discrimination in all its orms and to guaranteethe right o everyone… to leave any country,including one’s own, and to return to one’s country.”
Inernainal Cvenan n Civil and PliicalRighs, Aricle 12:
 
“No one shall be arbitrarilydeprived o the right to enter his own country.”
Furh Geneva Cnvenin, Aricle 49:
“Individual or mass orcible transers, as wellas deportations o protected persons romoccupied territory… are prohibited, regardlesso their motive… Persons thus evacuated mustbe transerred back to their homes as soon ashostilities in the area in question have ceased.”
UN Declarain n he Righs f IndigenusPeple, Aricles 3:
 
“States shall provide eectivemechanisms or prevention o, and redress or:(b) Any action which has the aim or eect o dispossessing them o their lands, territoriesor resources; (c) Any orm o orced populationtranser which has the aim or eect o violating orundermining any o their rights…”
1948 — UN General Assembly Resluin 194, Aricle 11:
 
“the reugees wishing to return to theirhomes and live at peace with their neighboursshould be permitted to do at the earliest practicabledate, and that compensation should be paid or theproperty o those choosing not to return and or losso or damage to property”
1967 — UN General Assembly Resluin 237:
 
“Calls upon the Government o Israel to… acilitatethe return o those inhabitants who have ed theareas since the outbreak o hostilities.”
1974 — UN General Assembly Resluin 3236,Subsecin 2:
 
“Reafrms also the inalienable righto the Palestinians to return to their homes andproperty rom which they have been displaced anduprooted, and calls or their return.”
1997 — UN General Assembly Resluin52/56, Subsecin 1:
 
“Reafrms that the Palestine Arab reugees are entitled to their property and toincome derived thererom, in conormity with theprinciples o justice and equality.”
The ight  etun is an inaienabe and basichuan ight and as such it cannt be negtiatedawa. Isae’s denia  this ight is iega undeintenatina aw.
Nakba mural in Ayda Camp, Bethlehem
refugee factsheet.indd 228/04/2008 09:26:35
 
www.paestinecapaign.g
‘Low-intensity population transfer’
P
aestinians cntinue t be dispssessed asa esut  Isaei picies in the occupiedPaestinian Teities. These incude evcatin esidenc ights, huse deitins and thecnscatin  and in de t buid iega setteents,picies which have cntibuted t the 115,000intena dispaced pesns in the West Bank andGaza Stip. This gue incudes 1967 IDPs and theidescendants and 15,000 ecent dispaced b Isae’scnstuctin  a 400 ie ng Apatheid wa thughPaestinian and.
Why are they still refugees?
I
sae euses tacknwedge anespnsibiit ceating the eugeepbe and, apat a inutenube  aieunicatin cases,has cpetedenied the eugeesthei basic huanight  etun.Isae’s aws baPaestinian eugeesand intenadispaced pesns etuning t thei igina hes. Paestinianscan n etun i the ae abe t pve that the weeiving in the state  Isae n  ate 14 Ju 1952 ae the chiden  a Paestinian wh satises thisstipuatin. Since st Paestinian eugees weedispaced utside Isaei teit bee this date theae unabe t etun he. Isae’s ccupatin andbde cnt ve the West Bank and Gaza Stip,and its eated iita des and adinistativepcedues has pevented eugees  etuning tthese aeas.The eusa t aw Paestinian eugees t etunt thei hes is based n Isae’s se-denitinas a Jewish state athe than a state  and  aits citizens. This eans that Jewish citizens andesidents  Isae and Jews in the diaspa ae givenspecia entiteents cncening citizenship and andwneship. This has been chaenged b an Jewishacadeics and activists wh suppt the visin  astate  a its citizens.Just bee the Bau Decaatin in 1917, David Aexande, then pesident  the Bad  Deputies Bitish Jews, and Caude mntee, pesident  the Ang-Jewish Assciatin, pubished a stateent inthe Ties, secnded a ew das ate b sevea theJewish ntabes, deping an suggestin that Jewishsettes in Paestine shud be invested ‘with cetainights in excess  thse enjed b the est  theppuatin’. This cud n ‘pve a veitabe caait
Where are the refugees now?
• Paestinian eugees have tended t sta ascse as pssibe t thei igina viages andhes, a decisin which efects the hpe thatne da the wi etun. The ajit  theeugees ive within 100 ies  the bdes Isae in adjacent Aab hst states.• Appxiate ne thid  UN egisteedPaestinian eugees eside in 59 cia UNcaps in Jdan, lebann, Sia, the West Bankand Gaza Stip. Thee ae a sae nube uncia caps. The age nube  eugeeseaining in caps even ate six decades exie is due t the caps’ stng ai andviage suppt stuctue; the ack  ne tent  bu utside the cap; the ack  ivingspace utside the cap; vaius ega, piticaand scia bstaces; the need  phsica saet;and the sbis  the cap as a pace tepa exie and  the unwaveing deand the ight  etun.• mst  the eaining tw thids ive in andaund cities  the West Bank and Gaza Stipand the neighbuing cunties.• o the UN eugees 1.8 iin ive in Jdan, 1.7iin in the West Bank and Gaza Stip, and theeaining egisteed 800,000 ae divided aieven between lebann and Sia.
6
 • Thee ae 274,000 intena dispacedPaestinians in Isae, st  the iving inunecgnised viages nea t thei iginahes.• othe Paestinian eugees ive esewheeaund the gbe, incuding in the Aabcunties. the Jewish pepe’, as it negated the pincipe equa ights  a.
5
In Isae tda, Paestinian eugees ae deniedthei ight  etun whie Isae’s disciinatlaw  retun gives an pesn wh is Jewish, has a Jewish paent, gandpaent  spuse, theautatic ight t iigate t Isae and gain Isaeicitizenship. Additina, a cbinatin  eegenceguatins, absentee ppet aws, iita desand the adinistative stategies have tanseedthe and  the dispssessed Paestinians int thewneship  the state  Isae and the JewishNatina Fund as the inaienabe ppet  theJewish pepe.The Paestinian eugees have nt eceived anapg  an nancia cpensatin  theidispssessin and the destuctin  thei ppet.meanwhie, the intenatina cunit has aden signicant attept t ensue a sutin t theeugee issue that espects intenatina aw and UNesutins.
refugee factsheet.indd 328/04/2008 09:26:35

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