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Harmonic Oscillator by Jawad

Harmonic Oscillator by Jawad

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Published by jawad
This document will provide a complete detail of harmonic osscilator and its types with application included in it.
This document will provide a complete detail of harmonic osscilator and its types with application included in it.

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Published by: jawad on Jun 28, 2010
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12/31/2012

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THUNDER BIRD PRESENTS 
DAMPING HARMONIC OSCILDAMPING HARMONIC OSCILAND ITS APPLICATIONAND ITS APPLICATION
 HARMONIC OSCILLATOR
1
 
The harmonic oscillator is a common model used in physics because of thewide range of problems it can be applied to. For example atoms in a lattice(crystalline structure of a solid) can be thought of as an in¯nite string of masses connected together by springs, whose equation of motion isoscillatory. In fact, the solutions can be generalized to many systemsundergoing oscillations, of which the mass spring system is just oneexample. Since the mass-spring system is easy to visualize it will serve asthe primary example as we develop a more complete general theorydescribing harmonic motion
.
In classical mechanics, a
harmonic oscillator
is a system which, whendisplaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force,
 F 
, proportional to the displacement,
 x
according to Hooke's law:where
is a positive constant.If 
 F 
is the only force acting on the system, the system is called a
simpleharmonic oscillator
, and it undergoes simple harmonic motion sinusoidaloscillations about the equilibrium point, with a constant amplitude and aconstant frequency (which does not depend on the amplitude).If a frictional force damping proportional to the velocity is also present, theharmonic oscillator is described as a
damped oscillator
. Depending on thefriction coefficient, the system can:
Oscillate with a frequency smaller than in the non-damped case, andan amplitude decreasing with time (
underdamped 
oscillator).
Decay exponentially to the equilibrium position, without oscillations(
overdamped 
oscillator).If an external time dependent force is present, the harmonic oscillator isdescribed as a
driven oscillator
.Mechanical examples include pendula (with small angles of displacement),masses connected to springs, and acoustical systems. Other analogous
2
 
systems include electrical harmonic oscillators such as RLC circuits. Theharmonic oscillator model is very important in physics, because any masssubject to a force in stable equilibrium acts as a harmonic oscillator for smallvibrations. Harmonic oscillators occur widely in nature and are exploited inmany manmade devices, such as clocks and radio circuits. They are thesource of virtually all sinusoidal vibrations and waves.
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
The simple harmonic oscillator is one of the central problems in physics. Itis useful in understanding springs, small amplitude pendulums, electroniccircuits, quantum mechanics, and even cars that shake at 53 MPH.Furthermore, many problems can be considered the sum of a large number,or infinite number, of harmonic oscillators.In physics,
simple harmonic motion
(
SHM
) is the motion of a simpleharmonic oscillator, a periodic motion that is neither driven nor damped. A body in simple harmonic motion experiences a single force which is given by Hooke's law; that is, the force is directly proportional to the displacement
 x
and points in the opposite direction.The motion is periodic: the body oscillates about an equilibrium position in asinusoidal pattern. Each oscillation is identical, and thus the period,frequency, and amplitude of the motion are constant. If the equilibrium position is taken to be zero, the displacement
 x
of the body at any time
isgiven bywhere
 A
is the amplitude,
 f 
is the frequency, and
φ
is the phase.The frequency of the motion is determined by the intrinsic properties of thesystem (often the mass of the body and a force constant), while the
3

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