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Dams

Dams

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Published by: sm506 on Jun 28, 2010
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02/07/2013

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Dams
Literally speaking Dam means a body of water confined by a
 
barrier.
Dams, structure that blocks the flow of river, stream, or other water way. Somedams divert the flow of river into a pipeline, canal, or channel. Others raise thelevel of inland water ways to make them navigable by ships and barrages. Manydams harness the energy of falling water to generate electric power. Dams alsohold water for drinking and crop irrigation, and provide flood control.The oldest known human made dams were built more than 5000 years ago inarid parts of the Middle East to divert river water to irrigate crops. Today thereare more than 500000 dams world wide. The wast majority of these are smallstructures less than 3m (10ft) high. Engineers regard dams that measure morethan 15m (50ft) high as large dams. About 40000 large dams exist in the worldtoday.Dams are of two types,1. Concrete dams2. Embankment dams
1. Concrete dams
Concrete dams are those whichare constructed of concrete andthey are mainly of three types,a. Gravity damsb. Arc damsc. Buttress dams
a. Gravity dams
Gravity dams are the concrete damswhich stayed due to their weight.
 
Aconcrete gravity dam has a crosssection such that with a flat bottom,the dam is free standing. That is, thedam has a center of gravity lowenough that the dam will not topple ifunsupported at the abutments. Gravitydams require maximum amounts ofconcrete for their construction ascompared with other kinds of concretedams, and resist dislocation by thehydrostatic pressure of reservoir water by sheer weight. A favourable site usuallyis one in a constriction in a valley where the sound bedrock is reasonably closeto the surface both in the floor and abutments of the dam. The availability of
 
suitable aggregate for manufacture of concrete is also an importantconsideration.Masonry dams that relied upon their weight for stability against sliding andoverturning date back 3000 to 4000 years, both upstream and downstream faceswere sloped and the base thickness was many times the height. In 1872 Rankineproposed that there should be no tensile stress in a gravity dam. In 1895 Levyproposed that the compressive stress in the material of the dam at the upstreamface should be greater than the water pressure at the corresponding depth in thereservoir.The danger from uplift had been recognized in 1882, and the danger of slidingwas highlighted by the failure of the Austin Dam, USA. The most recent advancehas been in the application of the finite element method of analysis.
Typical Section Example
Hoover Dam, Nevada-Arizona (221m)Grand Coulee Dam, Washington State (168m)Fontana Dam, Tennessee (137m)Studen Kladenetz, Bulgaria (67.5m)
 
Design Concepts and Criteria
A gravity dam shall be:Safe against overturning at any horizontal plane within the dam.Safe against sliding at any horizontal place within the dam.So proportioned that the allowable stresses in both the concrete and thefoundation shall not be exceeded.
Loading Criteria
 See Loading and Factor of Safety PageIn 1940 Houk and Keener, listed twenty five basic assumptions that should beconsidered relative to the design of important masonry dams.1. The rock that constitutes the foundation and abutments at the site isstrong enough to carry the forces imposed by the dam with stresses wellbelow the elastic limit at all places along the contact planes.2. The bearing power of the geologic structure along the foundation andabutments is great enough to carry the total loads imposed by the damwithout rock movements of detrimental magnitude.3. The rock formations are homogeneous and uniformly elastic in alldirections, so that their deformations may be predicted satisfactorily bycalculations based on the theory of elasticiy, by laboratory measurementson models constructed of elastic materials, or by combinations of bothmethods.4. The flow of the foundation rock under the sustained loads that result fromthe construction of the dam and the filling of the reservoir may beadequately allowed for by using a somewhat lower modulus of elasticitythan would otherwise be adopted for use in the technical analyses.5. The base of the dam is thoroughly keyed into the rock formations alongthe foundations and abutments.6. Construction operations are conducted so as to secure a satisfactory bondbetween the concrete and rock materials at all areas of contact along thefoundation and abutments.7. The concrete in the dam is homogeneous in all parts of the structure.8. The concrete is uniformly elastic in all parts of the structure, so thatdeformations due to applied loads may be calculated by formulae derivedon the basis of the theory of elasticity or may be estimated from laboratorymeasurements on models constructed of elastic materials.9. Effects of flow of concrete may be adequately allowed for by using asomewhat lower modulus of elasticity under sustained loads than wouldotherwise be adopted for use in technical analyses.

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