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Tae Kim No Japanese-Grammar

Tae Kim No Japanese-Grammar

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A Japanese Guide to Japanese Grammar
Tae Kimhttp://www.guidetojapanese.org/1
 
Summary
This document explains Japanese grammar in a systematic step-by-step process and is released underthe Creative Commons License. It was created as a resource for those who want to learn Japanesegrammar in a rational, intuitive way that makes sense in Japanese. The explanations are focused onhow to make sense of the grammar not from English but from a Japanese point of view. To learn moreabout this guide, go to the introduction page and start learning this intriguing and unique language!
Legal
This document is produced under theAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5
1
2
licence.You are free:
to Share
— to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work
to Remix
— to make derivative worksUnder the following conditions:
 Attribution
. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor.
NonCommercial
. You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
ShareAlike
. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resultingwork only under a license identical to this one.For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work.Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.
Errors
This document was not translated from the HTML by the author, Tae Kim, but by a volunteerbeginning Japanese language student. The furigana is especially at risk for introduced errors.
Pleasereport any problems found in the text so that future students may benefit 
.
Trivia
This document uses the beautiful and readable
Gentium
font
3
for the body of English text and
HiraginoMincho Pro W3
font for the Japanese text. Produced using NeoOffice 2.0 Aqua Beta 3, a port of OpenOffice to OS X.
Adapted from the official
Guide
as of 
2006年12月07日
.PDF Edition, Revision 0.0.24 by James Knowles on 2007
1
30
.
1http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/2http://creativecommons.org3http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=Gentium
2
 
Table of Contents
Part 1: Introduction...............................................................................................................................................5Part 2: The Writing System...................................................................................................................................8Hiragana...........................................................................................................................................................10Katakana...........................................................................................................................................................14Kanji..................................................................................................................................................................18Part 3: Basic Grammar.........................................................................................................................................21Expressing State of Being..............................................................................................................................22Introduction to Particles................................................................................................................................25Adjectives.........................................................................................................................................................29Verb Basics.......................................................................................................................................................34Negative Verbs.................................................................................................................................................37Past Tense.........................................................................................................................................................41Particles Used with Verbs..............................................................................................................................44Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.................................................................................................................50Descriptive Subordinate Clauses and Sentence Order..............................................................................52Noun-Related Particles
(と、や、とか、の)
......................................................................................55Using Adverbs and Gobi.................................................................................................................................62Part 4: Essential Grammar..................................................................................................................................65Polite Form and Verb Stems
(∼です、∼ます)
...............................................................................67Addressing People...........................................................................................................................................73The Question Marker
(か)
....................................................................................................................77Compound Sentences
(て
-form
、から、ので、のに、が、けど、し、∼たりする)
..........82Other Uses of the te-Form
(∼ている、∼てある、∼ておく、∼ていく、∼てくる)
........89Potential Form.................................................................................................................................................95Using
する
and
なる
with the
Particle
(∼
[
よう
]
になる/する)
..........................................99Conditionals
(と、なら、ば、たら)
...............................................................................................102Expressing “Must” or “Have to”
(∼だめ、∼いけない、∼ならない、∼ても)
.................107Desire and Suggestions
(たい、欲しい、
Volitional
、∼たらどう)
.........................................112Performing an Action on a Subordinate Clause
(と、って)
............................................................118Defining and Describing
(という)
........................................................................................................122Trying Something Out or Attempting to Do Something
(∼てみる、
Volitional+
とする)
.....127Giving and Receiving
(あげる、やる、くれる、もらう)
..........................................................129Making Requests
(∼ください、∼ちょうだい、∼なさい、
Command Form
...................134Numbers and Counting................................................................................................................................139Wrapping Up Section 4 and More Gobi.....................................................................................................148Part 5: Special Expressions...............................................................................................................................153Causative and Passive Verbs........................................................................................................................154Honorific and Humble Forms......................................................................................................................162Things That Happen Unintentionally
(∼てしまう、∼ちゃう/∼じゃう)
.........................169Special Expressions with Generic Nouns
(こと、ところ、もの)
.................................................171Expressing Various Levels of Certainty
(かもしれない、でしょう、だろう)
.......................173Expressing Amounts
(だけ、のみ、しか、ばかり、すぎる、
Amount+
も、ほど、さ)
....176Various Ways to Express Similarity and Hearsay
(よう、∼みたい、∼そう、∼そうだ、∼
3

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