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WHO Laboratory Manual for SEMEN, 4ed, 1999-2003

WHO Laboratory Manual for SEMEN, 4ed, 1999-2003

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Published by Walid Nouh
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Published by: Walid Nouh on Jun 29, 2010
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08/08/2013

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Introduction
In response to a growing need for the standardization ofproceduresfor the examination ofhuman semen, the World Health Organization(WHO)
rst published a
Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Semen–Cervical Mucus Interaction
in 1980. Thesecond and third editions ofthe manual followed in 1987 and 1992.These publications have been used extensively by clinicians andresearchers worldwide. Indeed, the third edition was translated intothe following languages: Arabic, Chinese, French, German,Indonesian, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. However, the
eld of andrology has continued to advance rapidly, and this, together withincreased awareness ofthe need for standardized measurements ofallsemen variables, has prompted the present revision.This fourth edition comes at a time ofnew developments and con-cerns. The landmark demonstration ofcontraceptive e
cacy withhormonally induced suppression ofspermatogenesis (World HealthOrganization Task Force on Methods for the Regulation ofMaleFertility, 1990, 1996) should lead to the development ofpractical,e
cient and safer hormonal methods ofmale fertility regulation.Advances in understanding the genetic basis ofmale infertility,together with the successes ofassisted reproductive technology,including intracytoplasmic sperm injection, have regenerated interestin the
eld and brought hope for men previously considered infertile.These advances in male subfertility treatment have also led to a resur-gence ofinterest in the assessment ofsperm function. Reports of declining sperm counts and increasing incidence ofurogenital abnor-malities and testicular cancer in some regions ofthe world havearoused public concern. The deterioration ofsemen quality is not geo-graphically uniform as shown by studies in Denmark, Finland,France, the United Kingdom and the United States ofAmerica.Government environmental agencies and national and internationalscienti
c societies, as well as WHO, have conducted discussions on thistopic without a clear consensus emerging. Further studies, perhapson varied populations in areas with and without known environmen-tal pollutants or toxins, are in progress. The advances in male contra-ceptive development and in the treatment ofmale subfertility,together with increasing concerns about the environment and
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WHO Laboratory Manual for the examination of human semenand sperm–cervical mucus interaction
This de
nitive and essential source of reference has been thoroughly up-datedandrevisedtomeettherequirementsof alllaboratoriesinvolvedintheanalysisof human semen. The book sets out the fundamental laboratory techniques thatshould be employed in the diagnosis of male infertility.The text includes descrip-tionsof howtoconstructaconventionalsemenpro
leandprovidesstandardizedprotocolsforperformingseveraloptionaldiagnosticprocedures.Suchtechniquesareessentialintheevaluationof infertilecouplesandinassessingfertilityinmenwhosespermproductionissuppressedbypotentialanti-fertilitycompoundsorbytoxicagents:theyarealsoof interestinforensicmedicineandinconnectionwitharti
cial insemination. Previous editions of this volume have established them-selvesasthegoldstandardintheareaof fertilityinvestigationandtreatment:thisnew edition continues that tradition and will be the benchmark for setting morerigorous standards for future years.

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