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Microbiology

Microbiology

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Published by: 0921py on Jun 29, 2010
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12/11/2012

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Prepared By
Dhruwansh
Micro Biology
Core Unit #1 – The Fundamentals of Microbiology
 Tutorial 03:Chemical Basis of Life 
 Tutorial 05:Microbial Metabolism 
Core Unit #2 – Microorganisms
 Tutorial 07:Class
 
Core Unit #3 – Microorganisms and Humans
 Tutorial 12:Innate Immunity 
 Tutorial 13:Adaptive Immunity 
 Tutorial 14:Immunologic Disorders 
 Tutorial 15:Antibiotics 
Core Unit #4 – Medical Microbiology
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Prepared By
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Core Unit #5 – Microbiology outside the HumanBody
 
Introduction to Microbiology
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms which must be viewed with the aid of a microscope or electronmicroscope.
The importance of microbiology includes: used in biomedical research, creation of medicines,environmental applications and new research tools.
Disease causing organisms include: protists, bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms.
Bacteria are important for fixing N2 in a usable form for plants.
Bacteria and some fungi are important in decomposition and recycling of raw materials.
Industry applications of microbiology: waste management, food industry, mining, medicine, research and biotechnology.
1660’s Robert Hooke
observed microorganisms for the first time with a microscope and coined the term“cell”.
1632-1723 Anton van Leeuwenhoek 
credited with having observed the first bacteria.
1828-1898 Ferdinand Cohn
developed the first classification scheme based on bacteria shape. Cohndetailed and described the life cycle of Bacillus.Cohn’s Classification System:
o
Sphaerobacteria are spherically shaped.
o
Microbacteria are rod shaped
o
Desmobacteria are filamentous
o
Spirobacteria are spiral shaped
1822-1895 Louis Pasteur
Defined pasteurization to prevent spoilage of food by bacteria, develop vaccinesand disproved the scientific dogma of “Spontaneous Generation”. He defined “Germ Theoryanddemonstrated that germs were responsible for disease.
1843-1910 Robert Koch identified anthrax and developed agar growth medium. Koch’s postulates was asystematic method to establish the microbial cause of disease.
Ignaz Semmelweis
was the first to recognize the need for good hygiene during medical procedures. Thefirst to identify nosocomial infections.
1827-1912 Joseph Lister
developed antiseptic methods for use in surgery and medicine.
1854-1915 Paul Ehrlich
developed chemotherapy to cure infectious diseases and discovers antibiotics totreat sleeping sickness and syphilis.
1881-1951 Alexander Fleming
discovered penicillin and lysozyme.
1864-1920 Dmitri Ivansvski
discovered the first virus which is known as the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).
Prepared By
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1952 Hershey & Chase
Experiments identified that DNA was the genetic material of bacteriophages.
Hershey Case Experiment: using phage radioactively labeled with P32 (DNA) or S35 (protein) they infected bacteria cells. They found the P32 inside the bacteria not S35.
Recommendations for Success in Microbiology
Successful completions of general biology 2 semesters
Knowledge of basic chemistry and biochemistry
Basic understanding of classification
Review layout of text book used in the course.
Read and master learning objectives laid out in the text book.
Master definitions presented in the course.
Techniques in Microbiology
Microscopy:
Electron Microscopy: uses electrons to create an image of the specimen.
Brightfield Microscopy: specimen is visualized after the light has passed through it.
Dark Field Microscopy: used when staining a sample is difficult or impossible.
Inverted Microscope: lenses are under the stage point upward used for thick samples.
Upright Light Microscope: lenses are above the specimen point down.
Slide Preparation and Cell Stains:
 
Wet Mount slide preparation: can be done with specific dyes or water.
Common Laboratory Stains: Gram-Negative stain with safranin and appear red.
Gram-Positive: crystal violet sometimes methylene blue.
Aseptic Techniques:
Method to collect, grow and preserve a sample such that no other microbes are introduced or lost from the original culture.
Agar Plates:
 
Streak Plate Procedure:
plate is streaked in a zig zag patter to dilute a sample spread out sample for the purpose of isolating individual colonies.
Selective Agar: growth medium with chemicals mixed in to select bacteria based on specific physiologicalcharacteristics e.g. antibiotic resistance.
Quantification
: Colony forming units (CFU) method to determine the number of bacteria in ample.
Dilution Plating: successive dilution of a sample to quantify and isolate single colonies.
Isolation of pure bacteria colonies: method to create a pure culture.
Colony Characteristics: Shape, size, morphology and growth patterns.
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