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Introduction to Enzymes

Introduction to Enzymes

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My introduction to enzymes and enzymology.
My introduction to enzymes and enzymology.

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Published by: Vytheeshwaran Vedagiri on Jun 30, 2010
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Enzymology, Introduction to EnzymesVytheeshwaran Vedagiri, Biochemistry For U, Chennai

INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMOLOGY 
Prepared byV. Vytheeshwaran, M.Sc.,DirectorBIOCHEMISTRY FOR U, ChennaiFor more info and feedback, contact me at biochemistryforu@gmail.com biochemistryforu@yahoo.com 

 
 
Enzymology, Introduction to EnzymesVytheeshwaran Vedagiri, Biochemistry For U, Chennai
ENZYMOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES 
Enzymes
y
 
Enzymes are biocatalysts²Catalysts of life
y
 
A
catalyst is defined as a substance that increases the velocity or the ra
 
te of achemical reaction, without itself undergoing any change in the process
y
 
Enzymes are biocatalysts that are synthesized by living cells.
y
 
T
hey are proteinaceous (exception is the ribozyme, which is an RN
A)
,colloidal, and thermolabile (inactive at 0
r
C and destroyed at 100
r
C
)
 
y
 
T
hey are specific in action, catalyze all biochemical reactions and aresusceptible to many factors like temperature, pH, etc.
y
 
Examples: urease, carbonic anhydrase, pepsin, rennin, etc.
A
ntienzymes
y
 
A
ntienzymes are those substances which when injected in the body producescertain molecules, which act as inhibitors and inhibits the function of theenzyme, related to that particular reaction
y
 
Examples:
A
ntitrypsin, antirennin, antipepsin, etc.
Sub
strate
y
 
T
he substrate is a substance upon which an enzyme acts and gets converted intothe corresponding product
y
 
F
or example, maltose is the substrate over which the enzyme maltase acts tofrom glucose
Maltase
MaltoseGlucose
p
 
Ch
aracteristics of Enzymes
1
 
Colloidal nature
y
 
T
hey are of great size
y
 
T
heir molecular weights usually range from 12000 to over a million Daltons
 
Enzymology, Introduction to EnzymesVytheeshwaran Vedagiri, Biochemistry For U, Chennai
y
 
Hence, they are very large compared to their substrates or the functionalgroup they act upon
y
 
T
he molecular weight of many enzymes are found to be approximately
n
-fold (
n
is an integer 
)
multiple of 17500, which is found to be a unit in most proteins
y
 
O
n account of their large size, the enzyme molecules possess extremely lowrates of diffusion and forms colloidal systems in water 
y
 
Due to their giant size, the enzymes exhibit many colloidal properties suchas:i
)
 
Diffusion rates are very slowii
)
 
May produce considerable high light scattering.
T
hey form turbidity insolution known as
T
yndall effect2
 
Catalytic nature
y
 
A
universal feature of all enzymatic reactions is the virtual absence of anyside product
y
 
A
n enzyme is precisely adapted to catalyze a particular reaction.
F
or example, amylase catalyzes the breakdown of starch
y
 
T
hey act catalytically and accelerate the rate of chemical reactions,occurring in the plant and animal tissues
y
 
T
hey normally do not participate in the reaction, or if they do so, at the endof the reaction, they are recovered as such without undergoing anyqualitative or quantitative change
y
 
T
his is why they are capable of catalyzing the transformation of a largequantity of substrate
y
 
T
hus, the catalytic potency of enzymes is extremely great3
 
T
urnover number 
y
 
T
he catalytic power of an enzyme is measured by the turnover number or themolecular activity
y
 
I
t is defined as the number of substrate molecules converted into the productin a given unit of time by a single enzyme molecule, when the enzyme isfully saturated with the substrate
y
 
T
he turnover number of some enzymes are given as follows:

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