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An Adaptive Power Efficient Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wimax Networks

An Adaptive Power Efficient Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wimax Networks

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Published by ijcsis
Admission control schemes and scheduling algorithms are designed to offer QoS services in 802.16/802.16e networks and a number of studies have investigated these issues. But the channel condition and priority of traffic classes are very rarely considered in the existing scheduling algorithms. Although a number of energy saving mechanisms have been proposed for the IEEE 802.16e, to minimize the power consumption of IEEE 802.16e mobile stations with multiple real-time connections has not yet been investigated. Moreover, they mainly consider non real- time connections in IEEE 802.16e networks. In this paper, we propose to design an adaptive power efficient packet scheduling algorithm that provides a minimum fair allocation of the channel bandwidth for each packet flow and additionally minimizes the power consumption. In the adaptive scheduling algorithm, packets are transmitted as per allotted slots from different priority of traffic classes adaptively, depending on the channel condition. Suppose if the buffer size of the high priority traffic queues with bad channel condition exceeds a threshold, then the priority of those flows will be increased by adjusting the sleep duty cycle of existing low priority traffic, to prevent the starvation. By simulation results, we show that our proposed scheduler achieves better channel utilization while minimizing the delay and power consumption.
Admission control schemes and scheduling algorithms are designed to offer QoS services in 802.16/802.16e networks and a number of studies have investigated these issues. But the channel condition and priority of traffic classes are very rarely considered in the existing scheduling algorithms. Although a number of energy saving mechanisms have been proposed for the IEEE 802.16e, to minimize the power consumption of IEEE 802.16e mobile stations with multiple real-time connections has not yet been investigated. Moreover, they mainly consider non real- time connections in IEEE 802.16e networks. In this paper, we propose to design an adaptive power efficient packet scheduling algorithm that provides a minimum fair allocation of the channel bandwidth for each packet flow and additionally minimizes the power consumption. In the adaptive scheduling algorithm, packets are transmitted as per allotted slots from different priority of traffic classes adaptively, depending on the channel condition. Suppose if the buffer size of the high priority traffic queues with bad channel condition exceeds a threshold, then the priority of those flows will be increased by adjusting the sleep duty cycle of existing low priority traffic, to prevent the starvation. By simulation results, we show that our proposed scheduler achieves better channel utilization while minimizing the delay and power consumption.

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An Adaptive Power Efficient Packet SchedulingAlgorithm for Wimax Networks
R Murali Prasad
Department of Electronics and CommunicationsMLR Institute of Technology, Hyderabadmuraliprasadphd@gmail.com
Dr.P. Satish Kumar
 
Professor, Department of Electronics and CommunicationsCVR College of Engineering, Hyderabadsatishkumar_1968@redifmail.com
 Abstract—
Admission control schemes and scheduling algorithmsare designed to offer QoS services in 802.16/802.16e networks anda number of studies have investigated these issues. But thechannel condition and priority of traffic classes are very rarelyconsidered in the existing scheduling algorithms. Although anumber of energy saving mechanisms have been proposed for theIEEE 802.16e, to minimize the power consumption of IEEE802.16e mobile stations with multiple real-time connections hasnot yet been investigated. Moreover, they mainly consider nonreal- time connections in IEEE 802.16e networks. In this paper,we propose to design an adaptive power efficient packetscheduling algorithm that provides a minimum fair allocation of the channel bandwidth for each packet flow and additionallyminimizes the power consumption. In the adaptive schedulingalgorithm, packets are transmitted as per allotted slots fromdifferent priority of traffic classes adaptively, depending on thechannel condition. Suppose if the buffer size of the high prioritytraffic queues with bad channel condition exceeds a threshold,then the priority of those flows will be increased by adjusting thesleep duty cycle of existing low priority traffic, to prevent thestarvation. By simulation results, we show that our proposedscheduler achieves better channel utilization while minimizingthe delay and power consumption.
 Keywords- QOS; Packet Scheduling Algorithm; IEEE802.16/802.16e; WiMAX Networks; delay and power consumption.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
 A. WiMAX Networks
 
WiMAX (Worldwide interoperability for Microwaveaccess) or IEEE 802.16 is regarded as a standard formetropolitan area networks (MANs) [2]. It is one among themost reliable wireless access technologies for upcominggeneration all-IP networks. In reality, this access technologyenables obtaining high bit rate and reaching large areas with asingle Base Station (BS), and because of this it provides tooperators the option of supplying connectivity to end users inan economical way [3]. It is a reliable choice to offer last-mileaccess in wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN)together with the merits of low cost, high speed, rapid andeasy deployment, such that a large number of applications canbe applied also in the areas where the installation of wiredinfrastructure is cost-effective or technically achievable [4]. Inconsequence to the characteristics of WiMax, it can be widelyemployed in several related fields, comprising of mobileservice, mobile commerce, mobile entertainment, mobilelearning and mobile healthcare [5].Fixed subscriber stations (SSs) and mobile subscriberstations (MSSs) remain in contact with BSs by means of airinterfaces [2]. Even though the deployment and the utilizationof this standard have begun, the exploitation of WiMAXnetworks is still restricted to certain situations. Researchworks on WiMAX access networks is still taking place,because several topics have yet to be described to permit andoptimize the utilization of this technology in upcominggeneration networks [3].Instant progress of wireless technology, together with thedevelopment of the internet, has augmented the demand forwireless data services. Next-generation wirelesscommunication systems are anticipated to offer an extensiverange of services with excessive and time-varying data raterequirements, with several and variable quality of service(QoS) constraints. Traffic on 4G networks namely WiMAX isheterogeneous with random mix of real and non-real timetraffic with applications needing widely varying andmiscellaneous QoS guarantee [7, 8].The 802.16 standard provides two modes for sharing thewireless medium:
 
Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) and
 
Mesh (optional).In the PMP mode, the nodes are arranged to form acellular-like structure, where a base station (BS) aids a set of subscriber stations (SSs) within the same antenna sector in abroadcast mode, with all SSs obtaining the same transmissionfrom the BS. Transmissions from SSs are targeted to andsynchronized by the BS. On the other hand, in Mesh mode, thenodes are organized ad hoc and scheduling is distributedamong them. In the IEEE 802.16 standard, uplink (from SS toBS) and downlink (from BS to SS) data transmissions areframe-based [1].
 B. Scheduling Issues in WiMAX 
Scheduling is the process of allocating time slots to SSs ineach frame so that the transmissions of nearby SSs will notcause collision, and global fairness among SSs can bemaintained [8].
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010295http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
WiMAX mesh mode employs two scheduling methods forassigning network resources and managing network access:Centralized and Distributed. When employing centralizedscheduling, the BS collects the requests of various SSs that arelinked to it developing a mesh tree and assigns resourceslocally. However, in distributed scheduling, requests andgrants are transferred in the extended neighborhood thatincludes the neighbors and their direct neighbors. The standardoffers signaling control messages for centralized anddistributed scheduling also but avoids the schedulingalgorithms open for the vendors. Besides, it characterizes thecontrol and management messages to be employed forconstructing the mesh, without describing the routing metricsto be employed [9]. Several scheduling algorithms were proposed, such asadaptive uplink and downlink bandwidth adjustment, toachieve higher transmission performance. Even with thesemethods and algorithms, the packet queuing delay and radiolink utilization of an IEEE 802.16-based network cannot begreatly improved due to its frame structure and bandwidthrequesting/granting procedure [2]. Numerous studies examined the power consumptionproblems of IEEE 802.16e and recommended algorithms toestablish the sleep interval in augmenting its energyefficiency. But, the entire study mainly takes into account nonreal- time connections in IEEE 802.16e networks. Noticeably,devoid of a proper schedule of the sleep-mode operations formultiple real-time connections on a mobile station, the powerconsumption of a mobile station cannot be lowered even whenthe sleep mode is applied [10].In this paper, we propose to design an ideal adaptive powerefficient packet scheduling algorithm that provides a minimumfair allocation of the channel bandwidth for each packet flowand additionally minimizes the power consumption.II.
 
R
ELATED
W
ORK
 Lien-Wu Chen et al [2] have studied how to exploitspectral reuse in resource allocation in an IEEE 802.16 meshnetwork, which includes routing tree construction (RTC),bandwidth allocation, time-slot assignment, and bandwidthguarantee of real-time flows. Their proposed spectral reuseframework covers bandwidth allocation at the applicationlayer, RTC and resource sharing at the medium access control(MAC) layer, and channel reuse at the physical layer. Alsotheir paper formally quantifies spectral reuse in IEEE 802.16mesh networks and exploits spectral efficiency under anintegrated framework.Hanwu Wang et al [4] have studied the radio resourcescheduling and traffic management in WiMAX networks.Their proposed scheme is scalable in the sense that differenttypes of sessions can be integrated into a unified schedulingprocess to satisfy a flexible QoS (Quality of Service)requirement. Their scheme is adaptive that all the traffic ratescan be controlled and tuned fast under different network traffic-load conditions. Also they have adopted the classicalcontrol theory method into their proposed mechanism, whichhelps to achieve high efficiency (utilization), perfect trafficthroughput, fairness, and system stability.Chakchai So-In et al [6] have defined the GeneralizedWeighted Fairness (GWF) criterion that allows carriers toimplement either of the two fairness criteria applying into aMobile WiMAX environment. In addition, they show how ascheduling algorithm can use the GWF criterion to achieve ageneral weighted fair resource allocation in IEEE 802.16eMobile WiMAX networks.Shiao-Li Tsao et al [10] have proposed two energy-efficient packet scheduling algorithms for real-timecommunications in a Mobile WiMAX system. Their schemesnot only guarantee the quality of services (QoSs) of real-timeconnections but also minimize power consumption of mobilestations by maximizing the length of a sleep period in thetype-two power-saving class defined in the IEEE 802.16e,without violating QoSs of all connections.Guowang Miao et al [11] have applied the utility-basedframework to evaluate system performance improvements fora downlink 802.16 OFDMA wireless communication system.They consider scheduling across a mix of rate-adaptive as wellas real-time service classes. Also they focused on channel-aware scheduling only.S. Lakani et al [12] have proposed a new approach toimprove distributed scheduling efficiency in IEEE 802.16mesh mode, with respect to network condition in everytransferring opportunity. Their proposed approach can reducetransmission delay.III.
 
P
ROPOSED
S
CHEDULING
 
 A. System Design
WiMAX system has five types of the traffic service,namely
 
UGS (Unsolicited Grant Service),
 
rtPS (Real Time Polling Service),
 
ertPS (Extended Real Time Polling Service),
 
nrtPS (Non- Real Time Polling Service), and
 
BE (Best Effort)The traffic flow is categorized into the following 3classes:1.
 
Class1 (UGS,rtPS and ertPS)2.
 
Class2 (nrtPS)3.
 
Class2 (BE)Each node
i
n
 
maintains 3 queues
21
,
ii
qq
and
3
i
q
for thetraffic classes Class1, Class2 and Class3 respectively. Eachnode shares the queuing information with other nodes withinthe communication range in control frame of the 802.16e. AChannel Condition Estimator (CCE) monitors the channelperiodically and estimates the channel state error (SINR).If there is no channel error, then resource are scheduled as pertheir priority of traffic classes, in a power efficient manner(described in section III.c).If there is a channel error, then
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010296http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Precede the transmission if the node has Class1 packets.
 
Otherwise, the transmission is stopped and the allottedslots are assigned to other neighboring nodes.To minimize power consumption of a mobile station (MS)with multiple real-time connections, we have to determine thelength of a sleep period and a listen period under the radioresource and QoS constraints.Considering a mobile station
 j
with
 N 
real-timeconnections, the QoS parameters of connection
i
can bedenoted as},,{
iii ji
 D AT PSQ
, where
 
i
 D
is the delay constraint of any two consecutivepackets for connection
i
 
 
i
PS
is the average packet size in bytes for connection
i
 
 
i
 AT 
is the average inter packet arrival time inmilliseconds for connection
i
.In this paper, these connections could be either downlink from a base station to a mobile station or uplink from a mobilestation to a base station.
 B. Channel Error Estimation
Here, we denote a communication link as),(
iii
sl
=
,where
i
s
is the sender and
i
is the receiver node. Accordingto our model, the Packet Reception Rate (PRR) experiencedon link 
i
l
, in the absence of interference
 ,
is given by)(
i
SNR f 
, where
i
SNR
is the signal-to-noise ratio at node
i
.Formally,
 N P
i
=
i
SNR
where
i
P
is the received power at node
i
 
of the signal transmitted by node
i
s
, and
 N  
is thebackground noise power.In presence of multiple concurrent transmissions onlinks
ll
L
1
, the PRR on link ),(
iii
sl
=
is givenby)(
i
SINR f 
, where
i
SINR
is the signal-to-noise-andinterference ratio measured at
i
when all the
ss
 j
'aretransmitting. Formally,
+=
i j ji
P N P
i
SNIR
(1)where
 j
P
denotes the received power at node
i
of thesignal transmitted by node
 j
s
 j
, for each
i j
.
C. Adaptive Sleep Duty Generation
 
In a Mobile WiMAX system, a mobile station can switchto sleep mode if there is no packet to send or receive in orderto save power. The IEEE 802.16e defines three power-savingclasses to accommodate network connections with differentcharacteristics. According to the specification, eachconnection on a mobile station can be associated with apower-saving class, and connections with a common demandproperty can be grouped into one power-saving class. Theparameters of a power-saving class, i.e. the time to sleep andlisten, the length of a sleep period and a listen period can benegotiated by a base station and a mobile station. [10].If a mobile station establishes multiple connections withdifferent demand properties, the periods that a mobile stationcan sleep are determined by the sleep-mode behaviorsassociated with all connections. Obviously, without a properschedule of the sleep-mode operations for multiple real-timeconnections on a mobile station, the power consumption of amobile station might not be reduced even the sleep mode isapplied.Since the periodic power save scheme requires a fixedsleep and listen periods for a station, it might have to stayawake in some frames in the listen period even if there is nopacket available. So a non-periodic (NP) scheme, in whichlength of sleep and listen periods are variable, has to beapplied in order to determine the sleep and wakeup cycles in aframe basis. The BS activates this scheme whenever aconnection is established or released on a MS to re-schedulethe resources in the following frames for the mobile station.All connections on a mobile station are checked todetermine their traffic class and sorted according to theirpriority level. Within each class, the connections are sortedbased on their request dead-lines.After the scheduler decides the scheduling priorities of connections, the packets from the first priority connection
i
 from the node
 j
are scheduled. Let)(
 RBW 
ij
be the requestbandwidth of the connection
i
of the node
 j
in the
th
 OFDM frame. Let
 j
TBW 
be the total available bandwidth inan OFDM frame of duration
 f 
to the node
 j
.To schedule)(
 RBW 
ij
, both the bandwidth and delayconstraints are to be satisfied. (i.e.)
mm ABW TBW  RBW  If 
 j jij
<
),()( (2)
i
 DC Tf m If 
×+
)1( (3)Where )(
m ABW 
 j
is the already allocated bandwidth forthe node
 j
for other connections in the
th
m
frame and
i
 DC 
 is the delay constraint in milliseconds of any two consecutivepackets for connection
i
.Let}{
ij
 RBW 
be the set of feasible scheduling frames for
ij
 RBW 
.
 
To assign the priority and select a frame }{
iji
 RBW 
,the following steps are followed.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010297http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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