This formula states that the intensity at a certain pointdepends on the reflectance of the object (
are ambient, diffuse, and specular reflectance,respectively), on the intensities of the light source
, andon some vectors.
denotes the unit normal vector to thesurface.
denotes the unit light source vector, and
isthe unit halfway vector indicating the direction of themaximum highlight. Another object dependent feature isexpressed by the glossiness
which ranges from one toinfinity. Phong shading is a well known method forproducing realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems The phong shading is basically used toenhance the visual quality of an image to extract featuresmore accurately. The Phong model describes theinteraction of light with a surface, in terms of the propertiesof the surface and the nature of the incident light. ThePhong model reflected light in terms of a diffuse andspecular component together with an ambient term. Theintensity of a point on a surface is taken to be the linearcombination of these three components. Phong shadingcalculates the average unit normal vector at each of thepolygon vertices and then interpolates the vertex normalover the surface of the polygon after calculating the surfacenormal it applies the illumination model to get the colorintensity for each pixel of the polygon.
Phong shading (interpolation of vectors)
The intensity of light on the surface is the combination of diffuse reflection, ambient light & specular reflection theintensity of diffused light is given in fig.2For phong shading
of the specular term can beformulated as
N H N H N H
( ) ( )( ) ( )
Ax By C Dx Ey F Ax By C Dx Ey F
+ + • + +=+ + + +
N Ax By C
= + +
represents the approximatenonunit length normal vector that is linearly interpolatedfrom the true surface normal vectors specified at thevertices.
A B C
are chosen to interpolate the surfacenormal vector across the polygon.
H Dx Ey F
= + +
represents the nonunit length halfway vector between thelight source vector and viewer vector.
One of the most important features that make possible therecognition of images by humans is a color. Color is aproperty that depends on the reflection of light to the eyeand the processing of that information in the brain. Themain method of representing color information of imagesin CBIR systems is through color histograms. Forextracting the color features, the color histogram is used asit is independent of image size & orientation. Here theRGB color histogram is used. for extracting these featurefirst we find the histogram for red, green & bluechannel..[1, 3, 4, 5, 10]IV.
Texture is that innate property of all surfaces that describesvisual patterns, each having properties of homogeneity. Itcontains important information about the structuralarrangement of the surface, such as; clouds, leaves, bricks,fabric, etc. The texture features describes the relationshipof the surface to the surrounding environment. A texture ischaracterized by a set of values called energy, entropy,contrast, and homogeneity.In short, it is a feature thatdescribes the distinctive physical composition of asurface.The following formulas are used to calculate thefeatures and are shown in equations 3 to 6 [1, 9]:-
Entropy is defined as
( ) ( )
Entropy P i j P i j
(3)Where P contains the histogram counts.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010302http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500