and exchanged using broadcasted into the network. TCmessages are only originated by nodes selected as
Multipoint Relays (MPRs)
by some other node in the network.
areselected in such a way that a minimum amount of
,located one-hop away from the node doing the selection(called
), are enough to reach every singleneighbour located two-hops away of
. Byapplying this selection mechanism only a reduced amount of nodes (depending on the network topology) will be selected asMPRs. Every node in the network is aware of its one-hopand two-hop neighbours by periodically exchanging
messages containing the list of its one-hop neighbours. On theother hand, TC messages will only advertise the links betweenthe MPRs and their electors. Then, only a partial amount of the network links (the topology) will be advertised, also MPRsare the only nodes allowed to forward TC messages and onlyif messages come from a
node. Theseforwarding constrains considerably decrease the amount of flooding retransmissions (Figure 1). This example shows theefficiency of the MPR mechanism because only eighttransmissions are required to reach all the 23 nodes buildingthe network, which is a significant saving when compared totraditional flooding mechanism where every node is asked toretransmit to all neighbours.Figure 1: Flooding with MPR mechanism
MPR Selection Algorithm
The computation of the
with minimal size is a NP-complet problem [14-16]. For this end, the standard MPRselection algorithm currently used in the OLSR protocolimplementations is as follows:Figure 2-a- Example of MRRset calculation.For a node
be the neighborhood of
is the setof nodes which are in the range of
and share with
abidirectional link. We denote by
, i.e, the set of nodes which are neighbors of at least onenode of
but that do not belong to
(see Figure 2-a).Based on the above notations, the standard algorithm forMPR selection is defined as follows (figure 2-b):
uses hop count to compute the shortest path to anarbitrary destination using the topology map consisting of allits neighbours and of
of all other nodes. Number of hopcriterion as a routing metric is not suitable for QoS support asa path selected based on the least number of hops may notsatisfy the required QoS constraints.Figure 2-b: MPR Selection AlgorithmIII.
Qos Support in a Manet
In this section we discuss the recent work done to provide
in Manets.INSIGNIA, , is an adaptation of the IntServ Model to themobile ad hoc networks.
guarantee is done by per-flowinformation in each node that is set up by thesignalling/reservation protocol. The destination statisticallymeasures
(e.g. packet loss, delay, averagethroughput,etc.) and periodically sends
to thesource. Based on those reports, the source node can adapt real-time flows to avoid congestion.SWAN, , Service differentiation in stateless WirelessAd-hoc Network, is an adaptation of the DiffServ Model to themobile ad-hoc networks. Nodes do not need to keep per-flowinformation in order to handle packets.
isprovided according to the class of the flow once it has beenaccepted.FQMM, , Flexible
for MANET, has beenintroduced to offer a better QoS guarantee to a restrictednumber of flows whereas a class guarantee is offered to theother flows. FQMM is a hybrid approach combining per-flowgranularity of
for high priority classes and perclassgranularity of
for low priority classes.G. Ying et al  have proposed enhancements that allowOLSR to find the maximum bandwidth path. The heuristics
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010139http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500