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Urbanizing the Rural Agriculture - Knowledge Dissemination using Natural Language Processing

Urbanizing the Rural Agriculture - Knowledge Dissemination using Natural Language Processing

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Published by ijcsis
The Indian rural agriculture has been facing a lot of problems. There are problems like irrigation problems, unfavorable weather conditions, and lack of knowledge regarding the market prices, animals, tools & pest prevention methods. Hence there is a need to develop a method to enable our rural farmers to gain knowledge. Knowledge can be gained by communicating to the experts of various fields in the agricultural sector. Therefore, we aim to provide the farmers with an interactive kiosk panel, using which they can get an easy and timely solution to their queries within 24 hours without being troubled to travel to distant places or make long-distance calls to gain information. Hence we focus towards development of software, which would provide immediate aid to the farmers in every possible manner. It would be an interactive system providing an end-to-end connectivity to the farmers with the international agricultural experts, which can help them in solving their queries and thereby enhancing the sources of information to the farmers.
The Indian rural agriculture has been facing a lot of problems. There are problems like irrigation problems, unfavorable weather conditions, and lack of knowledge regarding the market prices, animals, tools & pest prevention methods. Hence there is a need to develop a method to enable our rural farmers to gain knowledge. Knowledge can be gained by communicating to the experts of various fields in the agricultural sector. Therefore, we aim to provide the farmers with an interactive kiosk panel, using which they can get an easy and timely solution to their queries within 24 hours without being troubled to travel to distant places or make long-distance calls to gain information. Hence we focus towards development of software, which would provide immediate aid to the farmers in every possible manner. It would be an interactive system providing an end-to-end connectivity to the farmers with the international agricultural experts, which can help them in solving their queries and thereby enhancing the sources of information to the farmers.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 30, 2010
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URBANIZING THE RURAL AGRICULTURE- KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION USINGNATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
Priyanka Vij
(Author)
 
Student, Computer Science Engg.
Lingaya‟s Institute of Mgt. & Tech,
Faridabad, Haryana, Indiapriyankavij6@gmail.comHarsh Chaudhary
(Author)
 Student, Computer Science Engg.
Lingaya‟s Institute of Mgt. & Tech,
Faridabad, Haryana, Indiaharsh_hps@yahoo.co.in
Priyatosh Kashyap
(Author 
)
 Student, Computer Science Engg.
Lingaya‟s Institute of Mgt. & Tech,
Faridabad, Haryana, Indiapriyatoshkashyap@gmail.com
ABSTRACT - The Indian rural agriculture has been facing a lotof problems. There are problems like irrigation problems,unfavorable weather conditions, lack of knowledge regarding themarket prices, animals, tools & pest prevention methods.Hence there is a need to develop a method to enable ourrural farmers to gain knowledge. Knowledge can be gained bycommunicating to the experts of various fields in the agriculturalsector. Therefore, we aim to provide the farmers with aninteractive kiosk panel, using which they can get an easy andtimely solution to their queries within 24 hours without beingtroubled to travel to distant places or make long-distance calls togain information.Hence we focus towards development of software, whichwould provide immediate aid to the farmers in every possiblemanner. It would be an interactive system providing an end-to-end connectivity to the farmers with the internationalagricultural experts, which can help them in solving their queriesand thereby enhancing the sources of information to the farmers.
 Keyword: Rural Agriculture; Farmers; Natural Language Processing; Speech recognition; Language translation; Speech synthesis;
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
India is an agro-based country with its major sector being therural region. One of the major source of livelihood in India isagriculture. Current agricultural practices are neithereconomically nor environmentally sustainable and India'syields for many agricultural commodities are low.Sources responsible for this are unpredictable climate,growth of weeds, lack of knowledge about land reforms andmarket prices, decrease in profit margin, lack of technology,proper machinery, instant trouble shooting, knowledge of agricultural advancements, improper communication etc..In order to overcome these problems the farmers should bemade aware of the current trends in the field of agriculture, sothat the entire agricultural system can be upgraded to solveand overcome the bottleneck problems in the agriculturalgrowth.As we know
Communication
is the main backbone to solveany problem irrespective of any field it belongs to. So we haveused communication as an integral part of our project. Tomake this communication interactive we make use of an upcoming technology
“Natural Language Processing”
.
 A.
 
 Natural Language Processing
It
s used to communicate with the computer in our naturallanguage.By using it we believe to make it an interactive End to Endcommunication using Voice, where Voice of Sender in hislanguag
e is converted to a Voice in Receiver‟s Language.
 This Entire Process of 
Voice to Voice Transformation,
may bedivided into 3 phases:-
1)
 
Speech recognition
: Converting the spoken words tomachine-readable input. It includes the conversion of continuous sound waves into discrete words.[1]
2)
 
 Language translation:
It
‟s
translation of one naturallanguage into another.
3)
 
Speech synthesis:
 
It‟s the artificial production of human
speech. A text-to-speech system converts normallanguage text into speech.[2]
 B.
 
 Background and Related Work 
A lot of work has been done in the field of the agricultureextension to provide the farmers with ready to use knowledge.Many methods for the same have been implemented in Indiaand other countries too.
1)
 
aAQUA
-
 Almost All Questions Answered (aAQUA)
is webbased query answering system that helps farmers with theiragricultural problems.
 
The technology for
aAQUA
is amultilingual (Marathi, Hindi, and English) system whichprovides online answers to questions asked over theinternet.[3]
 
Figure 1.
 
Process of Natural Language Processing
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010163http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. XXX, No. XXX, 2010
Shortcoming:
it‟s a web portal, but majority of the rural population, in
India, is not literate,In order to run this system a person has to be available
always to register the farmer‟s query which is not always
very feasible.
 
If a person speaks in his regional language (e.g. Hindi)his query will only reach the experts who understand thatlanguage (i.e. Hindi),
2)
 
 E-Choupal
:-
 
The Internet enable the farmers to obtaininformation on mandi prices, good farming practices andplace orders for agricultural inputs like seeds andfertilizers.[4] Each kiosk has an access to Internet.
 
Shortcoming:
Deals only about the Market facilities and notTroubleshooting
3)
 
Gyandoot:
 – 
 
It‟s an intranet
 
network of computersconnecting the rural areas and fulfilling the everyday,information related needs of the rural people.[5] It madeuse of information and communication technology toprovide online services
 Shortcoming:
It‟s only implemented as yet in an intranet, amongst a
small district.
4)
 
 Agriculture Information System
:
 – 
It uses Agri Portal,Mobile Agriculture, Kisan Help Desk, Agri Learning, AgriGIS, Integration.[6] It broadcasts Information throughMobile Phones
 – 
Voice or SMS.
Shortcoming:
This one uses voice interaction but is only throughMobile phones
C.
 
Overcome The Shortcomings
We implement our system in an Information Kiosk, whichhelps us rectify the above
 
shortcomings.The farmers get in hand information regarding the crops,their prices in the market and every information they wishto know about within 24 hour, without having to go tovarious places in search of proper tools and techniqueswhich are being used.We Understand that a Farmer may or may not be literate,Hence We make limited use of language and emphasize onthe pictorial representation of Data.The farmers can themselves record their queries using themicrophone. Hence the need for a helper to operate thesystem for them is nullified.Moreover since Natural language processing technique hasbeen used for the conversion of Hindi to English andEnglish being the most common, hence it allows freeinteraction between a rural farmer and the internationalexperts, thereby connecting Indian farmers, not only withthe experts who understand their language but also withexperts from other countries.We not only Deal With the Marketing Facilities, butgeneralize it to be a communication related to any fieldcausing a problem to the farmers.As we say that we connect the Farmers with the
International experts it means we pose „No Restricti
on
Barrier‟ such as an Intranet, rather we use Internet
 Making Help lines available, so that farmers can call and
ask, but this is totally dependent on a Mobile‟s Network as
well as a monetary aspect in connecting a call. Hence weremove it as we use Internet & connect the two ends totallywith the limited cost of a dedicated internet Line.
II.
 
A
RCHITECTURAL
I
SSUES AND
C
HALLENGES
 
The various challenges to be faced by us in building such asystem are:
Providing information to the rural, computer-illiterate population
via the kiosks was a bigchallenge. To make the illiterate peoplecomfortable with our system, wedesigned a user interface which couldpictorially depict at a glance, what thatparticular section is about
.(eg) Fig.2 points to the field 
“WEATHE 
 R
 
Proper connectivity
, as ourkiosks require 24 hour internet access. Due to this reason, itis very essential to have dedicated internet connection.Even in the case of resource constraint i.e. connectivityissues etc, a proper backup must be taken intoconsideration.
Creating an voice
 
recognition system,
which translates thevoice into text, This is a challenge as such systems requirea high amount of training for accurate recognition. Themajor concern is the difference in regional accent of peoplewhile speaking a language (such as Hindi).
Translating a language to another, there
might be certaingrammatical errors that might also lead to a completechange of meaning in the sentence and in that case thereciever might understand something completely differentthan what was actually meant.
Synthesizing speech out of the text 
, there may be someproblems such as the computer is not able to say a wordproperly, and the audio which we get might be a rhymingword of the actual word to be said, hence it would changethe entire meaning of that sentence.
 Adding intelligence in the
 
system, t 
o make this system giveresponse immediately, it is required that a database iscreated where the pre-answered queries along with theirsolutions will be stored and when the similar questionwould be asked, depending on the Pattern Matching thesystem will retrieve the most appropriate solution. But,
Figure 2.
 
Weather Icon
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010164http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. XXX, No. XXX, 2010
sometimes the keyword may match but the sense of thequestion might be completely different.
Providing better service response time,
we need to undergoconsiderable process reengineering exercise so that theresponse we claim to come as soon as the expert answers,max 24hrs, may be lowered to some minutes, which canonly be possible if we are able to add intelligence to thesystem.
III.
 
M
ETHODOLOGY
 
It‟s the sequence of routines which we adopt for thedevelopment of the system, It‟s development is divided into 3
Phases:-
Phase 1:
Farmers Asking Queries From The Expert 
 
The identity of the Farmer is first identified. The Farmers thenclicks on the buttons depicting the picture related to theirqueries
 , (eg) a problem pertaining to Diseases of Crops would have a picture of crops on it 
.The question is then asked by the farmer in his voice (e.g.Hindi) and recorded, then the message is translated to the
Expert‟s Language in text and is sent to the expert of that
field.This process is implemented by a
Speech RecognitionTechnique,
 
converting the Farmer‟s Voice to Text and then a
  Language Translation co
nverts the Text to the English Textand also the intermediate English Query thus produced wouldbe stored in the database for a technique to come up in Phase3.
 Phase 2:
 Experts Answering Back The Queries
 To the Query of the Farmer, the Specific Expert responds byanswering back in text. The English Text is then convertedinto an Audio signal in the Language of Farmer (e.g. Hindi).This audio would be heard by the respective farmer who askedthis query when he next time logs in the system.This process is implemented by a
 Language Translation
he English answer thus written is translated back into
farmer‟s language text and then
Speech Synthesis
converts the
text in the farmer‟s language into audio signals.
 
This audioreply is heard by the Farmer as a response to the query whichhe had posted. The answered text is stored in the database nextto the question, which would be used in phase 3.
 
 Phase 3:
Farmers Getting Instant Responses if Query Already Answered 
If a Farmer asks a query which was already answered by someother farmer then the Answer to that Particular query is postedback to the Farmer Instantly.This process of 
 Intelligent Information Retrieval
is carriedout by analyzing the keywords present in the query and thensearching it on the database whether they match accuratelywith any of the pre-answered query If a perfect match occurs
which is in context to the farmer‟s query, the answer is
instantly given to the farmer else the process of phase1 wouldbe carried out
.
We discuss the main Techniques, with the Help of which ourproject transforms the Input Voice to the Audio output at thesame kiosk where the farmer asks the question:
 A.
 
Speech Recognition
Converting the spokenwords to machine-readable input is speechrecognition.It includes theconversion of continuoussound waves intodiscrete words. SpeechRecognitionfundamentally functionsas a pipeline thatconverts PCM (PulseCode Modulation)digital audio from asound card intorecognized speech. [7]The elements of the pipeline are:
 
1)
 
Transform the PCM digital audio into a better acousticrepresentation
: The PCM audio, thus noticed by the soundcard is converted into an acoustic representation which canthen easily be transformed into a digital representationusing a Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT). This digitalrepresentation can easily be understood by the computerand so it can work over it.
2)
 
Figure out which phonemes are spoken:
Here we begin byapplying a "grammar" on the data so the speech recognizerknows what phonemes to expect. A
grammar 
could beanything from a context-free grammar to full-blownLanguage. Hence the computer, fed in with a database of phonemes of that grammar, tried to figure out and identifythe phonemes in the digitized data, and spots out thematching references
Figure 3.
 
Flow diagram of the entire System, showing the 3phasesFigure 4.
 
Speech RecognitionProcess
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010165http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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