Applicability of Data Mining Techniques forClimate Prediction – A Survey Approach
Dr. S. Santhosh BabooReader, PG and Research department of ComputerScience,Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss Vaishnav CollegeChennaisanthos2001@sify.comI. Kadar Shereef Head, Department of Computer ApplicationsSree Saraswathi Thyagaraja CollegePollachikadarshereef@gmail.com
British mathematician Lewis Fry Richardsonfirst proposed numerical weather prediction in 1922.Richardson attempted to perform many kinds of lowcomplexity numerical forecasts before World War II. The firstsuccessful numerical prediction was performed in 1950 by ateam composed of American metrologists Jule Charney, PhilipThompson, Larry Gates, and Ragnar using the ENIAC digitalcomputer. Climate prediction is a challenging task forresearchers and has drawn a lot of research interest in therecent years. Many government and private agencies areworking to predict the climate. In recent years, more intelligentweather forecast based on Artificial Neural Network (ANNs)has been developed. Two major Knowledge Discovery areasare (a) data analysis and mining, which extracts patterns frommassive volumes of climate related observations and modeloutputs and (b) data-guided modeling and simulation (e.g.,models of water and energy or other assessments of impacts)which take downscaled outputs as the inputs. In this survey wepresent some of the most used data mining techniques forclimate prediction. But still it is a challenging task. In thispaper, we survey various climate prediction techniques andmethodologies. End of this survey we providerecommendations for future research directions.
Weather Forecasting, Climate Prediction,Temperature Control, Neural Network, Fuzzy Techniques,Knowledge Discovery, Machine Learning, Data Mining.
Data mining is the process of extracting important anduseful information from large data sets . In this survey,we focus our attention on application of data miningtechniques in weather prediction. Now a day’s weatherprediction is an emerging research field. This work providesa brief overview of data mining techniques applied toweather prediction.Data mining techniques provides with a level of confidence about the predicted solutions in terms of theconsistency of prediction and in terms of the frequency of correct predictions. Some of the data mining techniquesinclude: Statistics, Machine Learning, Decision Trees,Hidden Markov Models, Artificial Neural Networks, andGenetic Algorithms. Basically data mining techniques canbe classified as such as frequent-pattern mining,classification, clustering, and constraint-based mining .Classification techniques are designed for classifyingunknown samples using information provided by a set of classified samples. This set is usually referred to as atraining set, because in general it is used to train theclassification technique how to perform its classification.Neural networks and Support Vector Machines techniqueslearn from a training set how to classify unknown samples.In other words samples whose classification is unknown.The K- nearest neighbor classification technique does nothave any learning phase, because it uses the training setevery time a classification must be performed. Due to thisproblem, K- nearest neighbor is referred to as a lazyclassifies.A major generic dispute in climate data mining resultsfrom the nature of historical observations. In recent years,climate model outputs and remote or in situ sensorobservations have grown rapidly. However, for climate andgeophysics, historical data may still be noisy andincomplete, with uncertainty and incompleteness typicallyincreasing deeper into the past. Therefore, in climate datamining the need to develop scalable solutions for massivegeographical data co-exist with the need to developsolutions for noisy and incomplete data .The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. InSection 2 we present the related work for solving Climateprediction used data mining techniques. Section 3 provides amarginal explanation for future enhancement. Section 4concludes the paper with fewer discussions.II.
Data mining and their applications have been utilized indifferent research areas and there is a bloom in this field.Different techniques have been applied for mining data overthe years. Qiang yang and Xindong wu  discussed the tenimportant challenging problems in data mining researcharea. Most used ten data mining techniques are discussed ina paper .Ganguly et al. in  explained the necessity of datamining for climate changes and its impacts. Knowledgediscovery from temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal data isdecisive for climate change science and climate impacts.Climate statistics is an established area. Nevertheless, recentgrowth in observations and model outputs, combined withthe increased availability of geographical data, presents newopportunities for data miners. Their paper maps climaterequirements to solutions available in temporal, spatial andspatiotemporal data mining. The challenges result fromlong-range, long-memory and possibly nonlineardependence, nonlinear dynamical behavior, presence of thresholds, importance of extreme events or extremeregional stresses caused by global climate change,uncertainty quantification, and the interaction of climatechange with the natural and built environments. Their papermakes a case for the development of novel algorithms to
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010203http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500