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Non-Blind Image Watermarking Scheme using DWT-SVD Domain

Non-Blind Image Watermarking Scheme using DWT-SVD Domain

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Published by ijcsis
Digital watermarking scheme has been well accepted method for hiding the data into a host image. Digital watermarking can applied to a variety of fields like text, image, audio, video and software. Lot of tools has been established in order to duplicate and modify the multimedia data. Therefore security is the most important dispute that requires some mechanism to protect the digital multimedia data. In order to protect those multimedia data on the Internet many techniques are available including various encryption techniques, steganography techniques, watermarking techniques and information hiding techniques. Digital watermarking is a technique in which one can hide the data or information in another object (cover data) and transfers it over the network. The data hiding can take place either in spatial domain or in frequency domain. This paper proposes a non-blind watermarking scheme in which the original image is decomposed into four frequency bands. The DWT coefficients in these frequency bands are then modified in order to hide the watermark data. SVD is capable of efficiently representing the intrinsic algebraic properties of an image, where singular values correspond to the brightness of the image and singular vectors reflect geometry characteristics of the image. Therefore in this approach the robustness can be achieved by DWT, stability of watermark image is increased by SVD, and imperceptibility is ensured by the use of enhanced DWT domain human visual model. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach Performance comparison of the algorithm among the first three levels of frequency band decomposition is considered.
Digital watermarking scheme has been well accepted method for hiding the data into a host image. Digital watermarking can applied to a variety of fields like text, image, audio, video and software. Lot of tools has been established in order to duplicate and modify the multimedia data. Therefore security is the most important dispute that requires some mechanism to protect the digital multimedia data. In order to protect those multimedia data on the Internet many techniques are available including various encryption techniques, steganography techniques, watermarking techniques and information hiding techniques. Digital watermarking is a technique in which one can hide the data or information in another object (cover data) and transfers it over the network. The data hiding can take place either in spatial domain or in frequency domain. This paper proposes a non-blind watermarking scheme in which the original image is decomposed into four frequency bands. The DWT coefficients in these frequency bands are then modified in order to hide the watermark data. SVD is capable of efficiently representing the intrinsic algebraic properties of an image, where singular values correspond to the brightness of the image and singular vectors reflect geometry characteristics of the image. Therefore in this approach the robustness can be achieved by DWT, stability of watermark image is increased by SVD, and imperceptibility is ensured by the use of enhanced DWT domain human visual model. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed approach Performance comparison of the algorithm among the first three levels of frequency band decomposition is considered.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 30, 2010
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01/17/2013

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M.DEVAPRIYA Dr. K. RAMAR
Asst.Professor, Dept of Computer ScienceProfessor & HOD, Dept of CSEGovernment Arts CollegeNational Engineering CollegeUdumalpet,TamilnaduState, IndiaKovilpatti -628 502, Tamilnadu State, India priyavasanth@yahoo.comkramr_nec@rediffmail.
com
 Abstract-
Digital watermarking scheme has been well-acceptedmethod for hiding the data into a host image.Digital watermarking can applied to a variety of fieldslike text, image, audio, video and software. Lot of toolshas been established in order to duplicate and modifythe multimedia data. Therefore security is the mostimportantdisputethat requires some mechanism toprotect the digital multimedia data.In order to protectthose multimedia data on the Internet many techniquesare available including various encryption techniques,steganography techniques, watermarking techniquesand information hiding techniques. Digitalwatermarking is a technique in which one can hide thedata or information in another object (cover data) andtransfers it over the network. The data hiding can takeplace either in spatial domain or in frequency domain.This paper proposes a non-blind watermarking schemein which the original image is decomposed into fourfrequency bands. The DWT coefficients in thesefrequency bands are then modifiedin order to hide thewatermark data.SVD is capable of efficientlyrepresenting the intrinsic algebraic properties of animage, where singular values correspond to thebrightness of the image and singular vectors reflectgeometry characteristics of the image. Therefore in thisapproach the robustness can be achieved by DWT,stability of watermark image is increased by SVD, andimperceptibility is ensured by the use of enhanced DWTdomain human visual model.To evaluate the efficiencyof the proposed approach Performance comparison of the algorithm among the first threelevels of frequencyband decomposition is considered.
 Keywords-DigitalImage Watermarking, Data Hiding, DiscreteWavelet Transformation (DWT), Human Visual  Model, Imperceptibility, Robustness, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD).
I.I
 NTRODUCTION
As the size of internet grows, the volume of multimediadata (images, text, and audio/video) floating around hasalso increased progressivelyday by day. Duplication andmodification of those multimedia data can be easilyachieved by means of the tools that are readily availabletoday. Therefore security is the major challenge thatrequires some mechanism to protect the digital multimediadata. Digital image watermarking has been an interestingfield of study in recent years because of the advantages provided by it. The increase in access of World Wide Webhas necessitated the internet user to have concern over theinformation anddata shared between them. Digitalwatermarking is a technique in which one can hide the dataor information in another object(cover data)and transfersitover the network.This information of digital data can beextracted later for ownership verification [1].Digitalwatermarking can applied to a variety of fields like text,image, audio, video and software. A lot of techniques areavailable for protecting the copyrighted material. Oneamong them is data encryption. The data is encrypted usingsome of the conventional algorithms and the encrypted dataandinformation is transferred over the network. The mainadvantage of this method is that encryption protects the dataonly along the transport channel. This ultimately led to thedevelopment of technique in which the information ishidden into a multimedia data in a robust and invisiblemanner. This approach has gained lot of interests over theyears.Many techniques have been proposed earlier in literature,for efficient digital image watermarking. The principalfeatures of digital image watermarking includerobustnessand perceptibility. Robustness indicates the resistivity of watermark against different types of attacks. The attacks areeither intentional or unintentional. The attackssuch ascropping, rotating, scaling, low pass filtering, resizing,addition of noise, JPEG compression, sharpness, histogramequalization and contrast adjustment would be generallyenforced on a watermarked image. Robustness is a property, which is vital for ownership verification. Theincrease in perceptibility will decrease the quality of thewatermarked image [2].In general, digital data could be hidden, directly bymodifying the intensity value or pixel value of an image or its frequency components [3].The technique mentionedearlier is known as spatial domain technique and later iscalled frequency domain technique.The transformationtechniques such as Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT),Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) [4][5], WalshHadamard Transformation [6], and Discrete WaveletTransformation (DWT) [7] [8] are extensively used in order to the frequency components. Some of the importantapplications of watermarking technique are copyright protection, ownership verification, finger printing, and broadcast monitoring.This paper proposes a non-blindwatermarking scheme. In this proposed approach, the
 Non-Blind Image WatermarkingScheme using DWT-SVD Domain
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010222http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
original image is decomposed into ‘n’ frequency bands.Usually the value of n tends to four for efficientwatermarking scheme. The DWT coefficients in thesefrequency bands are then altered in order to hide thewatermark data. To evaluate the efficiency ofthe proposedapproach Performance comparison of the algorithm amongthe first four levels of frequency band decomposition isconsidered.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.Section 2 discusses relevant research works in the field of digital image watermarking that were proposed earlier inliterature. Section 3 provides an overview on DiscreteWavelet Transformation (DWT) and Singular ValueDecomposition (SVD). Section 4 explains the human visualmodel for DWT-SVD domain digital image watermarking.Section 5 briefs the proposed watermarking scheme.Section 6 illustrates the experimental results and section 7concludes the paper with fewer discussions for futureenhancement.II.
ELATED WORK 
A lot of research has been carried out in this field of image processing. This section of the paper discusses theliterature survey that has been conducted on discretewavelet transformation combined with singular valuedecomposition techniques for hiding information in digitalcolor images.Gaurav et al. in [9] described a new robust watermarkingscheme based on DWT-SVD. Their paper describeda newsemi-blind reference watermarking scheme based ondiscrete wavelet transform(DWT) and singular valuedecomposition(SVD) for copyrightprotection andauthenticity. Theywere using a gray scale logo image aswatermark as an alternativeof randomly generatedGaussian noise type watermark. For watermark embedding,the original image is transformed into wavelet domain and areference sub-image is formed using directive contrast andwavelet coefficients. Theyembeddedthe watermark intoreference image by modifying the singular values of reference image using the singular values of the watermark.A reliable watermark extraction scheme is developed for the extraction of watermark from distorted image. Their Experimental evaluation demonstrates that theirproposedscheme is able to withstand a variety of attacks. In addition,theyshowedthat the proposed scheme also stands with theuncertaintyattack also.A new watermarking technique was put forth by Zhu etal. in [10]. In their paper, theyproposed a novelwatermarking scheme based on adaptive quantization indexmodulation and singular value decomposition in the hybriddiscrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosinetransform (DCT). The secret watermark bits are embeddedon the singular values vector of blocks within lowfrequency sub-band in host image hybrid DWT-DCTdomain. In order to embed watermark imperceptibly,robustly and securely, theymodeledthe adaptivequantization steps by utilizing human visual system (HVS)characteristics and particle swarm optimization (PSO)algorithm. Experimental results demonstratedthat their  proposed scheme is robust to variety of image processingattacks. In the proposed algorithm the quantized embeddingstrategy is adopted, so no host image is needed for blindextraction of watermarking image.Ruth et al. in [11] projected an image watermarkingmethod using SVD and wavelet transform. A robust imagewatermarking scheme in which a binary image is embeddedin the singular values of selected DWT blocks in thehorizontal and vertical sub-bands of a 1-leveldecomposition of a gray-scale image wasproposed. Theembedded blocks are selected by a secret key to enhanceimperceptibility. A watermarked image that is perceptuallyindistinguishable from the original is obtained. Thewatermarking retrieval is non-blind and requires the use of  parameters extracted during the watermarking process. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested bycomparing the retrieved watermark to the originalwatermark. Computer simulation results show that thealgorithm is robust to common signal processing attackssuch as Gaussian noise, cropping, and low pass filtering. Itis also resistant to JPEG compression.An adaptive DWT-SVD domain image watermarkingscheme was proposed by Li et al. in [12]. As digitalwatermarking has become asignificanttool for copyright protection, diversewatermarking schemes have been proposed in literature. Among them both discrete wavelettransform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD)are frequentlyused. They decomposed the host image intofrequency bands using DWT-based watermarking scheme.Modification in all frequencies enables watermarkingschemes using DWT robust to a wide range of attacks.However, as most transform methods, DWT decomposesimages in terms of a standard basis set which is notnecessarily optimal for a given image. By contrast withDWT, SVD offers a tailor-made basis for a given imagewhich packs maximum signal energy into as fewcoefficients as possible. SVD is used in image processingalso for its properties of stability, proportion invariance androtation invariance. In their paper theyproposeda hybridDWT-SVD domain watermarking scheme consideringhuman visual properties. After decomposing the host imageinto required subbands, they appliedSVD to each subbandand embeddedthe singular values of the watermark intothem. The main advantages of their proposed scheme arerobustness for its embedding data into all frequencies andlarge capacity for using SVD.Ali et al. in [13] described an approach for non-invertiblecopyright protection of digital imagesusing DWT andSVD.Copyright protection of digital media has become amost importantanxietyfor owners and providers of digitalmedia such as images, audio, and video products. To presentthe required copyright protection, watermarking hasrecently emerged as a major technology, offering manyalgorithms and techniques that have different characteristics
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010223http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
and effectiveness. In their paper, theyproposedanundetectableand robust digital image watermarkingalgorithm. The algorithm is based on cascading two powerful mathematical transforms; the Discrete WaveletTransform (DWT) and the Singular Value Decomposition(SVD). The algorithm, distinctform most algorithms proposed earlier in the literature, is non-invertible.Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of their  proposed algorithm and exposeda familiarmistaken belieregarding the locations at which watermark informationshould be embedded to achieve robust and non-invertibleSVD-based watermarking.A robust image watermarking scheme was projected byRezazadehet al. in [14]. In their paper, they have describeda robust watermarking scheme for embedding binarywatermarks in digital images. In contrast toother wavelet- based watermarking systems which employ human visualsystem (HVS) for watermark casting, theirscheme doesnotneed to use HVS characteristics. For embedding procedure,one-level wavelet transform of cover image and one-level binary wavelet transform of watermark are computed.Afterward, each sub bandof decomposed cover image is permuted randomly and one bit of decomposed watermark is embedded into maximum singular value of a block withinits corresponding sub bandof cover image. Experimentalresults demonstrated the robustness of theirmethod againstcommon image processing operations and cropping.Comparison with other methods shows superiority of their method at high compression ratios in JPEG attack.III.A
 N OVERVIEW ON DISCRETE WAVELETTRANSFORM
(
DWT
)
AND SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION
(
SVD
)In numerical analysis and functional analysis, a discretewavelet transform (DWT) is any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. As with other wavelet transforms, a key advantage it has over Fourier transforms is temporal resolution: it captures bothfrequency and location information.In this paper DWT isused to decompose the original image into four frequency bands. The obtained DWT coefficients in these frequenciesare thenmodified to hide the watermark information. Sincethe modifications take place at all the frequencies it ensuresthe robustness of the watermarked image to variousintentional or unintentional attacks enforced on it.Singular value decomposition is a linear algebratechnique used to solve many mathematical problems [15].The theoretical background of SVD technique in image processing applications to be noticed is clearly explained in[16].The stability provided by singular value of an image ishigh and therefore when a small value is added to an imagethis does not affect the quality with great variation. Inaddition, SVD is capable of efficiently representing theintrinsic algebraic properties of an image, where singular values correspond to the brightness of the image andsingular vectors reflect geometry characteristics of theimage.Normally an image matrix may have many smallsingular values compared with the first singular value. Theelimination of these small singular values will not affect thequality of an image on reconstruction.The SVD belongs to orthogonal transform whichdecompose the given matrix into three matrices of samesize [4].Moreover in order to decompose the matrix usingSVD technique it need not be a square matrix.SVDtechnique packs maximum energy available into as fewcoefficients as possible. Therefore, SVD techniques arewidely used in digital image watermarking schemes. Let usdenote the image as matrix A. The SVD decomposition of matrix A is given usingthe following equation,A = USV
T
U and V are unitary matrices such that UU
T
=I, VV
T
= I,where I is an Identity matrix.U={u
1
, u
2
, . . . . , u
n
}and V={v
1
, v
2
, . . . ,v
n
},U matrix iscalled left singular values and V matrix is called rightsingular values. The decomposition of matrix A is obtainedusingfollowing equation,SVD (A) = U S V
T
= U
0 00D
V
T
S =
0 00D
such that all the elements in main diagonal
are in decreasing order like σ
1
≥ σ
2
≥σ
3
≥ ... σ
n
≥0, where S is
the diagonal matrix having in its main diagonal all positivesingular values of A.IV.A
HUMAN VISUAL MODEL FOR DWT
-
SVD DOMAINDIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING
This section of the paper describes the relationship between a DWT domain human visual modelsthat wasearlierproposed in [12]. The modification threshold of singular values in an image isutilized to evaluate therobustness and the imperceptibility of a watermarkedimage.
 A.DWT domain Just Noticeable Distortion(JND)
Imperceptibility of watermark can be adapted by using a perceptual model of Just-Noticeable distortion (JND).Thehuman visual model proposed in [17] provides thequantization step for each wavelet coefficient of an image.It is based on factors that affect the sensitivity of the eye tolocal noise.Similarly two models named model [b] andmodel [c] was proposed in [18]. The proposed work utilizesthe model [c] described in [18] and the comparisons arecarried on model [b] to evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in image watermarking. The model canevaluate the JND profile for a 4 level DWT decomposition.I
r,s
(x, y) denotes the wavelet coefficient at position (x, y) of decomposition level r 
{0, 1, 2, 3} and orientation s
{LL,LH, HL, HH}.JND(r, s, x, y) = 0.5, qstep (r, s, x, y)Whereqstep(r, s, x, y) = q
0
. freq(r, s) . lumen(r, x, y) .texture(r, x, y)
0.034
, whereq
0
is the normalization constantand its value is fixed as 10,freq(r,s) which gives the noise
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010224http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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