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Approach towards analyzing motion of mobile nodes- A survey and graphical representation

Approach towards analyzing motion of mobile nodes- A survey and graphical representation

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper we have carried out a survey to towards understanding the behavior of the random variable environment.The purpose of the mobility models is to serve as a representative scenario for node movement in the adhoc networks. The mobility models represent the realistic movement characteristics of the mobile nodes. We concentrate our work on the Random walk models and their various forms. The complex domain based node detection has also been pointed out.
In this paper we have carried out a survey to towards understanding the behavior of the random variable environment.The purpose of the mobility models is to serve as a representative scenario for node movement in the adhoc networks. The mobility models represent the realistic movement characteristics of the mobile nodes. We concentrate our work on the Random walk models and their various forms. The complex domain based node detection has also been pointed out.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 30, 2010
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Approach towards analyzing motion of mobilenodes- A survey and graphical representation
A.Kumar P.Chakrabarti P.Saini
Sir Padampat Singhania University Sir Padampat Singhania University Sir Padampat Singhania UniversityUdaipur , Rajasthan , India Udaipur , Rajasthan , India Udaipur , Rajasthan , Indiaarunkumarsai@gmail.com prasun9999@rediffmail.com poonam.saini9@gmail.com 
 Abstract-
In this paper we have carried out a survey totowards understanding the behavior of the random variableenvironment.The purpose of the mobility models is to serve asa representative scenario for node movement in the adhocnetworks. The mobility models represent the realisticmovement characteristics of the mobile nodes. We concentrateour work on the Random walk models and their variousforms. The complex domain based node detection has alsobeen pointed out.
 Keywords-
Random variable, mobility, random walk, complexdomain
I. INTRODUCTIONThe wireless networks have some of its elements stationaryand others being mobile. The users are free to roambetween base station cells and thereby creating issues suchas handover, call control and mobility management. So inorder to understand the network, the mobility of nodesplays a vital role. The deterministic modeling techniquesassume an environment with no randomness in theoutcome; the results shall remain the same, on the otherhand if the outcome is random and the results areunpredictable and are termed as stochastic. The purpose of the mobility models is to serve as a representative scenariofor node movement in the adhoc networks. The mobilitymodels try to accurately represent the realistic movementcharacteristics of the mobile nodes.II .RANDOM WALK FOR BROWNIAN MOTIONThe random walk model concept dates back to the irregularmotion of individual pollen grains experimented by RobertBrown (1828), [1][2][3] and now it is called Brownian asshown in Figure 1.Figure 1. Brownian Motion in two dimensionsBrownian motion, in some systems can also be described asnoise, and is a continuous motion of small particles. Thestriking features of this concept are:1. The motion is very irregular, composed of translationsand rotations, and the trajectory of the motion appears tohave no tangent.2. Two particles appear to move independently, even whenthey approach one another, within a distance less than theirdiameter.3. The smaller is the particle; the more active is the motion.4. The composition and density of the particles have noeffect.5. The less viscous is the fluid; the more active is themotion.6. The higher is the temperature; the more active is themotion.7. The motion never ceases.In a simple random walk model for node moving in amobile adhoc network, the following assumptions areconsidered [1]-1.There is a starting point.2.The distance from one point in the path to the next is aconstant3.The direction from one point in the path to the next ischosen at random, and no direction is more probable thananother.Consider a node moving on an infinite, one dimensionaluniform line .Let the node start its journey at the origin (x=0) and then it moves a small distance
δ
either left or rightin a short time
τ
. The motion is completely random and theprobabilities of moving both left and right is 1/2 .The canbe either at left or right of the origin and the distance is asassumed earlier i.e.
δ
. The next time step the node will be ata position
to the left or right of the origin withprobability of 1/4 each or even the node can return to itsoriginal position.On assuming the above behavior of the node, theprobability that the node will be at a distance
to theright direction of the origin or to the left direction of theorigin after taking n time steps and can be represented as :p(m, n)=
n
 
(

)
 =
(

)


-
……………………………………...
(1)This is a binomial distribution with mean 0 and variance n.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010250http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
The mean location for one dimension is zero and the meansquared displacement is equal to
2Dt
.Therefore weconclude that when direction bias is missing ,there is nooverall movement in any direction. But from equation (3),we find that the mean squared distance is increasinglinearly with time. We made different observation onrandom walk models in one, two and three dimensions. Letthere be
N
steps of equal length along a line by a node, let
p
be the
 
probability of taking a step to right and let q be theprobability of taking a step to left direction. We assume thatthe node can take up
n1
steps in to right or
n2
steps to theleft [4].
 
p + q=1
and
n1 + n2 = N
 
<n1>=p*N
(mean number of steps to right)
 
<n2>=q*N (N
(mean number of steps to left)
 
Variance = σ
n12
= <n1
2
>
-
<n1>
2
 
= N*P*Q
 
σ
n1
=
 
 
……………………………….(2)
 
III. SURVEY OF RANDOM WALKS IN N-DIMENSIONFigure 2. Random walk-1DimensionFigure 3. Random Walk in 2 dimensionIn a random walk in two dimension as shown in the Figure3,the position
z
in the complex plane after
N
steps[2]
<|z|
2
> =N
The root-mean-square distance after
N
unit steps istherefore |z|=
√ 
 so with a step size of 
l
this becomes
d=l*
√ 
 In order to travel a distance
d ,
steps are therefore required.Figure 4. Random Walk in 3 dimensionIV. A REVIEW OF GAUSS MARKOV MODEL WITHGRAPHICAL INTERPRETATIONWe now consider the concept of drift in a node movement.Let us assume
 
as degree of randomness in the mobilitypattern [2].A node is firstly placed in the simulation area and assigneda current speed and direction .At fixed intervals of time
n
 movements occur. The next location is calculated on thebasis of the current location, speed and direction of themovement.For new speed and direction we have
as new speedand direction variables ,here
 
is randomness parameter

 
and
 

denotes random variables from a Gaussiandistribution.




 




 For location, we have:







 







 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010251http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Here,
refers to velocity and
refers to direction.

 and

are x and y coordinate positions calculated fromthe above mathematical equations
.
Here the concept of mean speed and mean direction (local direction) has beenused.Figure 5. Gauss-Markov Mobility ModelV. NODE TRACKING IN COMPLEX DOMAINAccording to the radio coverage area of a leader [5] in a cellthe communication for each node is possible with in aMANETs , but if a node start its movement then there maybe some link failure between the leader node and themoving node. Using some complex variable features if anode starts its movement in counterclockwise way then wecan detect the node positionAccording to the time stamp the position for each node canbe changed .Method 1:
counter clockwise movement for the node can bedetected as
Suppose that w=z
½
, for that function we detect the nodeposition , we allow z to make a complete circuit around theleader which is at the position O.We have z=re
, then w=( re
)
1/2
,so that at any position x,
θ= θ
1
and w=( re
iθ1
)
1/2
 
For the same equation we just take θ=
-
θ
1
then we have
 
z=re
then w=( re
i(-
θ1)
)
1/2
so using this method, we caneasily identify the unique position for the node in aparticular movement.Figure 6. Counter clockwise node detectionMethod 2:
 Node leaves the corresponding cell
Due to mobility features if a node reaches the boundary
leave the corresponding cell then the another cell’s leader 
take the responsibility to identify the node depending uponthe radio frequency . The radio frequency for that cell is fland for the next cell is fm then for the particular node itcompare fl with fm then if fl>fm then the cell is in the ycell. Then using the method 1 the next cell identifies theposition for the particular node.Let f(z) be defined and single-valued in a neighbourhood of z=z
0
with the possible exception of z=z
0
itself. We say thatthe the cell L is the limit of f(z) as z approaches z
0
and writelim f(z)=L using the same way we calculate the distancefrom cell M and we compare these twoz z
0
values and which one is minimum that corresponding cellhas the responsibility to identify the node position.Figure 7. Node move from cell L to MIn the Figure 7 we see that the node start it movement fromcell L to M and depending upon the radio frequency weidentify which cell takes the responsibility to identify the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010252http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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