The mean location for one dimension is zero and the meansquared displacement is equal to
2Dt
.Therefore weconclude that when direction bias is missing ,there is nooverall movement in any direction. But from equation (3),we find that the mean squared distance is increasinglinearly with time. We made different observation onrandom walk models in one, two and three dimensions. Letthere be
N
steps of equal length along a line by a node, let
p
be the
probability of taking a step to right and let q be theprobability of taking a step to left direction. We assume thatthe node can take up
n1
steps in to right or
n2
steps to theleft [4].
p + q=1
and
n1 + n2 = N
<n1>=p*N
(mean number of steps to right)
<n2>=q*N (N
(mean number of steps to left)
Variance = σ
n12
= <n1
2
>

<n1>
2
= N*P*Q
σ
n1
=
……………………………….(2)
III. SURVEY OF RANDOM WALKS IN NDIMENSIONFigure 2. Random walk1DimensionFigure 3. Random Walk in 2 dimensionIn a random walk in two dimension as shown in the Figure3,the position
z
in the complex plane after
N
steps[2]
<z
2
> =N
The rootmeansquare distance after
N
unit steps istherefore z=
√
so with a step size of
l
this becomes
d=l*
√
In order to travel a distance
d ,
steps are therefore required.Figure 4. Random Walk in 3 dimensionIV. A REVIEW OF GAUSS MARKOV MODEL WITHGRAPHICAL INTERPRETATIONWe now consider the concept of drift in a node movement.Let us assume
as degree of randomness in the mobilitypattern [2].A node is firstly placed in the simulation area and assigneda current speed and direction .At fixed intervals of time
n
movements occur. The next location is calculated on thebasis of the current location, speed and direction of themovement.For new speed and direction we have
as new speedand direction variables ,here
is randomness parameter
and
denotes random variables from a Gaussiandistribution.
For location, we have:
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010251http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 19475500