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Recognition of Printed Bangla Document from Textual Image Using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network

Recognition of Printed Bangla Document from Textual Image Using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network

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Published by ijcsis
This paper focuses on the segmentation of printed Bangla characters for efficient recognition of the characters. The segmentation of characters is an important step in the process of character recognitions because it allows the system to classify the characters more accurately and quickly. The system takes the scanned image file of the printed document as its input. A structural feature extraction method is used to extract the feature. In this case, each individual Bangla character is converted to a M × N feature matrix. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with back propagation algorithm is chosen to feed the feature matrix to train with the set of input patterns and to develop knowledge to classify the character. The effectiveness of the system has been tested with several printed documents and the success rates in all cases are over 90%.
This paper focuses on the segmentation of printed Bangla characters for efficient recognition of the characters. The segmentation of characters is an important step in the process of character recognitions because it allows the system to classify the characters more accurately and quickly. The system takes the scanned image file of the printed document as its input. A structural feature extraction method is used to extract the feature. In this case, each individual Bangla character is converted to a M × N feature matrix. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with back propagation algorithm is chosen to feed the feature matrix to train with the set of input patterns and to develop knowledge to classify the character. The effectiveness of the system has been tested with several printed documents and the success rates in all cases are over 90%.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 30, 2010
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Recognition of Printed Bangla Document from Textual Image Using Multi-LayerPerceptron (MLP) Neural Network
Md. Musfique Anwar, Nasrin Sultana Shume, P. K. M. Moniruzzaman and Md. Al-Amin Bhuiyan
Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, Jahangirnagar University, BangladeshEmail: musfique.anwar@gmail.com, shume_sultana@yahoo.com, get2monir@gmail.com,
 
alamin_bhuiyan@yahoo.com
 
Abstract
 
This paper focuses on the segmentation of printedBangla characters for efficient recognition of thecharacters. The segmentation of characters is animportant step in the process of character recognitions because it allows the system toclassify the characters more accurately and quickly.The system takes the scanned image file of the printed document as its input. A structural featureextraction method is used to extract the feature. Inthis case, each individual Bangla character isconverted to a
 N  M 
×
feature matrix. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with back  propagation algorithm is chosen to feed the featurematrix to train with the set of input patterns and todevelop knowledge to classify the character. Theeffectiveness of the system has been tested withseveral printed documents and the success rates inall cases are over 90%.
Keywords:
Character segmentation, Character recognition,Feature extraction, Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP),etc.
1. Introduction
 
Optical character recognition [1] is one of theattractive fields of image processing [2]. Acharacter recognition technique associates asymbolic identity with the image of a character. Lotof research works on Bangla Character recognitionhas been done through last few years. In themodern approach, adaptive tools have been appliedto pattern recognition system. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is the most popular adaptive toolthat is used for character recognition [3]. Mostapplication use feed forward ANN and a numerousvariant of classical backpropagation algorithm andother training algorithms. The area of this researchis not only individual character recognition but itattempts to retrieve a complete paragraph from itsoptical image created by a scanner. In this paper we proposed a way to recognize printed Bangladocument from textual image using multilayer  perceptron with backpropagation algorithm for individual character recognition.
2. Bangla Character Set
Character is the fundamental attribute for writingand reading a language. Character recognition isthe process to classify the input character accordingto the predefined character class. There is a particular character set for each language in theworld and Bangla language has also its owncharacter set with 49 characters, 10 digits, punctuations and other symbols.Bangla letters are formed in two-dimensional space based on mostly horizontal, vertical and are stroke[4].The Bangla characters are classified in twocategorizes as follows:i)
 
Sorborno:
‘Shorborno’ like vowel of EnglishLanguage Character. There are eleven‘Shorborno’ characters. The first six charactersor letters have full matra, the 7
th
has half matraand the last four have no matra.ii)
 
Banjonborno:
‘Banjonborno’ is like as theconsonant. There are 39 ‘Banjonborno’ inBangla letter. Here we are concerned aboutonly the characters.Bangla scripts are moderately complex patterns
.
E
ach
word in Bangla scripts is composedof 
seveal
characters joined by a horizontal line(called
‘Matra’
or head-line) at the top. Theconcept of upper and lower case (as
in
English)character is absent
hee.
 
There are manycomposite characters, called “Jukto barna” asshown in
Fig. 1
. There are more that about 253compound characters composed of 2, 3, or 4consonants (i.e. Banjonborno) [5]. There are someother types of characters used in Bangla dictionary,called suffix-prefix characters as shown in
Fig. 2
.(a)
 
Shorbarna(b) Benjonbarno(c) Bangla numerals(d) A few Bangla composite characters
Fig. 1
Some Bangla mainstream characters used for images recognition.
Fig. 2
Suffix-prefix determiner characters
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010254http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
3. The System Overview
 
The main phases of character recognition system isthe segmentation of text into characters so that thecomputer is able to classify characters within a paragraph as human can identify them. The overallmethod of the implemented system is illustrated inthe
Fig. 3
. 
Fig. 3
Overall diagram of the recognition system3.1 Data AcquisitionThe input images are acquired from documentscontaining printed Bangla text by using scanner asan input device. Scanned images are then stored asan image file (.JPEG). Pre-processing is required tomake the raw data of the image into usable format[6] because the scanned image does not happen to be always in suitable form. This image is then passed for boundary detection.3.2 Boundary DetectionWe need to scan from the upper left and the bottomright of the image to find the processing area of the printed text document. The scanning is halted whenit faces a single pixel.3.3 SegmentationIn this phase text is partitioned into its elementaryentities i.e. characters. First the system detects theregion of a text line of the paragraph. Then the textlines are segmented into words and the words aredivided into characters.3.3.1 Text Line DetectionText line detection is performed by scanning theimage row by row horizontally and keeps thenumbers of black pixels in each row. Now the boundary may be detected from the array bycounting the frequency of pixels in each line. In our experiment we found the number of pixels of a blank line in the image vary from 0 to 10. So thenumber of pixels where text is present in the imageis much larger than that of blank in the paper.There is a general concept that between two linesmore than two blank lines are present. In this waywe detect the boundary of a text line.Upper boundary of a line is the first row where themore black pixels are found. After finding theupper boundary, it continues scanning until a rowwhose next row has no black pixels, which is thelower boundary of the text line. There exist about 8to 10 blank rows between two text lines.3.3.2 Word Segmentation Normally, in Bangle word there is no character spacing due to Matra (
 ⎯⎯ 
). We have to detect theMatra of a text line at first. Matra line is that rowthat where the number of black pixels is themaximum [1, 7]. After detecting a line, the systemscans the image vertically from the upper boundaryof the line and count the number of black pixels ineach column. Start position of a word is the firstcolumn where black pixels found first. The systemcontinues scanning until a column whose nextcolumn has no black pixels, which is the end position of the word. There exist about 4 to 6 blank columns between two words.3.3.3 Character SegmentationTo perform the separation of characters in a word,the system scans vertically from the start positionof the word which is also the start position of thefirst character of the word. After finding the start position of the character, it continues scanning untila column whose next column has no black pixels,which is the end position of the character. Everyconsecutive character in a word contains 2 to 3 blank columns shown in
Fig. 4 .
 
Fig. 4
Character separation from below the Matra3.4 Feature ExtractionFeature extraction is a subject of effective character recognition and it helps easing classification task.Maximum height and width of Bangla characters(without compound characters) of SutonnyMJ fontwith 10 font size is 76
×
and maximum 912
×
incase of compound characters. After determining thestart and end position of a character, the region of that character is converted to a 76
×
matrix or 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010255http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
912
×
matrix (for compound characters)containing 0 and 1, where 1 represents the presenceof character component and 0 represents theabsence of the character component.The boundary of all characters are not of equal size,
i.e
., the extracted matrices are not of equal size. If some matrices are of smaller or greater height andwidth of our standard size then we scale the matrix, but, if the height is equal but width is less then, weadd 0 to fill up the matrix to our standard size. Thecharacter matrix acts as input to the recognitionstage. The input matrix is then fed to the neuralnetwork.3.5 Recognition Engine and Classifier In a back-propagation neural network, the learningalgorithm has two phases. First, a training input pattern (Bengali characters) is presented to thenetwork input layer. The network then propagatesthe input pattern from layer to layer until the output pattern is generated by the output layer. If this pattern is different from the desired output, an error is calculated and then propagated backwardsthrough the network from the output layer to theinput layer. The weights are modified as the error is propagated.A back-propagation neural network is determined by the connections between neurons, the activationfunction used by the neurons, and the learningalgorithm that specifies the procedure for adjustingweights. The network architecture for the backpropagtion neural network is shown in
Fig. 5
. 
Fig. 5
Back-propagation neural network topologyA neuron determines its output by computing thenet weighted input:
==
n1i
θ
iwixX (1)Where n is the number of inputs, and
θ 
isthreshold applied to the neuron. Next, this inputvalue is passed through the sigmoid activationfunction:Xe11SigmoidY
+=
………… (2)To derive the back-propagation learning law, let usconsider the three-layer network shown in
Fig. 5.
 The indices i, j, k here refer to neurons in the input,hidden and output layers, respectively. The symbol
ij
w
denotes the weight for the connection betweenneuron i in the input layer and neuron j in thehidden layer, and the symbol
 jk 
w
the weight between neuron j in the hidden layer and neuron k in the output layer.To propagate error signals, we start at the outputlayer and work backward to the hidden layer. Theerror signal at the output of neuron k at iteration t isdefined by:(t)a,k Y(t)d,k Y(t)e
=
………… (3)Where t=1, 2, 3 and (t)d,k Y is the desired outputof neuron k at iteration t. Neuron k, which is located in the output layer, issupplied with a desired output of its own. Hencewe may use a straightforward procedure to updateweight
 jk 
w
:(t) jk 
Δ
w(t) jk w1)(t jk w
+=+
………… (4)Where (t) jk 
Δ
w is the weight correction, given by:(t)
δ
(t) jy
α
 jk 
Δ
w
××=
………… (5)Where(t)
δ
is the error gradient at neuron k inthe output layer at iteration t.In order to calculate the weight correction for thehidden layer, we can apply the same equation as for the output layer:(t)ij
Δ
w(t)ijw1)(tijw
+=+
………… (6)Where (t)ij
Δ
w is the weight correction, given by:(t) j
δ
(t)ix
α
ij
Δ
w
××=
………… (7)Where (t) j
δ
represents the error gradient at neuron j in the hidden layer:
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010256http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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