stein's equations.However, application of these cquationst ot h ec o x m o l o g i n problem givesarcsolt difftirentf r o m that ohtained by Fricdmarin's theory. Inpart,icular, the solution gives theH i t b b l e lawa s thel a w of rnot,ionof afree body in the incrtial field- in contrastt o Ga.lileo-Newton'sla w .
gen ergibt Rich ein Systemv o n allgenieinereii liovarianz~1eichungt:iid(:s Inrrt,ial- tinct Schawcfeldes. Int l e r Eineteinschen Saherung geheii diew Gleichnngen in die Einstcinschen Feldglcichttngen iiber. Beid en Grundproblemerid e r sllgemeincn Kelst.ivitatstlieoricI iofern die neuen Glcicliitngendicselben Ergebnififie\vie die Einsteinschcn. LDagegenfinder1 sich beini kosmologisclien Problem vonder I+'ricd- tnannschen Theorie abweichende Ergebnisse.J i m findet insbesonderedas Hrthk)lcsche Gcsctzids
1lndoubt.edly irifliieiicc tlit: metric: oftlie real world and create a general 1nctrica.l hack- ground in t k Universe different from Chlilco’s. Therefore evcrywhere in the Universe in diffcrencc to the ideas ofG T Ilg . i k , l .+ 0. This metric:al h,ackground will be called hencefortha n inc.rt.ial field.
Jn order to findt h e way outof this sit.Liation the authors of the well-known scalar theoryI h A H & l S and~ ) I C K E[1 ,‘21 proceeding from $Ilach’s principle suggest.ed an idea within that t.hcory according to which tlicrc trxistsa s c i h r ficld, besides the usual ten-
It. ~liouldbe noted that t.he firsta n d original attenipt to forniuliitc the sca.lar-gravi- tat.ioirnl theory was niadt:b yS T m i u m v I c f ras early as inI 0 6 8[ 3 ] . The subscqnent work, rclated ihideas to this,was the theoiy ofZ A I T S E VaridK O L E S W I K O V
matically per1uit.s arbitrary transformations of coordinates, under whicha t linear condi- tions the gravhtional field vanishes or at other conditions new physical fields originatc. This is evidently not correct, because the truc gravitational field, which is equivalent to the geometric structure of Riemannian spacc-t,iine, cannot; he eliminated by ineansof choosing coordinates. On tlic other hand no o1)jt:ctivc physical ficld (in contrast t.0 fictive fields) mayb c created by meansof an arbitrary choice of coordinates.M oreover it is well known that, the principle of equivalencc in thc nlt:ntioncd sense has onlya locale n d approxiniate chtlrilcter.
Jndced,a s shownb yF O C K[111, the equivalence of gravitational and accclerational fields is limited not only .to snrall doniaineso f space and short intervalso f timc, but generally tow c a ka n d homogeneous fieldsanti slow motions. By thc way, here one should not confuse the lawo f cquality of inertial and gravitational inasses with the nientioned principle of equivalence. The mat~lieinat.ical
naincly since the possi- bility of introducing of locally-geodet.ics y s t e n ) is containedi n Riemannian geomet.ry, t,herefore the pointed-ont principlc does not const,itiite a separate physical hypothesis. Actually the availability of sucha possibility in the Riemannian space-t.imei s not nes-
Actually one more very important fact (usually unnoticed) follows from the prin- ciple of equivalencc, namely that the geodetic line is identified with a trajectory of mo- tion ofafree material particle. Indeed it is wcll known that the notion of affine connec-
is directly connccted with the concept of parallel transfer. On thc basis of parallcl transfer the whole tensor analysis may be Constructed, the expression for the tensorof curvatureR f , , obtained, and geodetic lines be constructed,i.c., the clirvcs of parallel transferof vectoro r tensor with their equations, without introducing the notion of metric (of metrical tensorg i k )A m x i t s o N[ 121.
Indeed let an arbitrary scalar parametert be taken asa parameter changing along the curve of parallel transfer of vectorui,i.e. the curve is parametrically defincdb yt h o equationx i=x,(t) andu i=dxi/dt is a unit tangent vector to the curve. Then the variations of vector components as a result of transfcr from pointillt o p o i n tiM‘ a l o n g
Meanwhile the trajectory of motion of a frcc partick, in contrast to thc geodetic line, can be obtained only on the basis of real world metricd.92=g,,dxidxl from the principle of least action6 s=-mc61ds =0:
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