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Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field of Universedavtyan

Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field of Universedavtyan

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Published by Luke Lee
Abstrart. hi the writs of present articles the origirml proposition is a gchncralization of tile rcitI world tensor by the introduction of n inertial field tensor. From this generalization it follo\vs, particularly,
that Viqlrn =qzrn;i 0. This allows t.o use as a Lagranginn density of the field the exprcssiori
11, -.= kl qlm;i$m;k$'c. On the ba.sis of vari:itionnl equations a system of more general covarimit eqiistions
of the gravitationsl-inertial field is obtnincd. In the Einstein approximation these equations
reduce to t,lie field equations of Einstein. The solution of ftindaniental problcnis in the general t.lieory
of relativity by means of the new equations gives the ~:SITIC resu1t.s as thc solution by nieuns of Einstein's
equations. However, application of these cquations to the coxmologin problem gives a rcsolt
difftirent from that ohtained by Fricdmarin's theory. In part,icular, the solution gives the Hitbble
law as the law of rnot,ion of a free body in the incrtial field - in contrast to Ga.lileo-Newton's law.
Abstrart. hi the writs of present articles the origirml proposition is a gchncralization of tile rcitI world tensor by the introduction of n inertial field tensor. From this generalization it follo\vs, particularly,
that Viqlrn =qzrn;i 0. This allows t.o use as a Lagranginn density of the field the exprcssiori
11, -.= kl qlm;i$m;k$'c. On the ba.sis of vari:itionnl equations a system of more general covarimit eqiistions
of the gravitationsl-inertial field is obtnincd. In the Einstein approximation these equations
reduce to t,lie field equations of Einstein. The solution of ftindaniental problcnis in the general t.lieory
of relativity by means of the new equations gives the ~:SITIC resu1t.s as thc solution by nieuns of Einstein's
equations. However, application of these cquations to the coxmologin problem gives a rcsolt
difftirent from that ohtained by Fricdmarin's theory. In part,icular, the solution gives the Hitbble
law as the law of rnot,ion of a free body in the incrtial field - in contrast to Ga.lileo-Newton's law.

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Published by: Luke Lee on Jun 30, 2010
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Annaleiid w Physik.7 . Folge,B a n d3 . i .H e f t4,I % &S." 4 7 - 2 6 7
J .A . Harth, Leipzig
Theoryof Gravitational-Inertial Field of Universe
1.Gravitationaf- Inertial Field Equations
By0 .K.D A V T Y A N
Abstrart.h i thew r i t s of present articles the origirml propositionis a gchncralization oft i l ercitI
world tensor by the introduction ofn inertial field tensor.F r o m this generalizationi tfollo\vs, parti-
cularly,t h a tV i q l r n=qzrn;i
0.Thisallow st.o usea sa Lagranginn density oft h e field the exprcssiori
11,- .=k lq l m ; i $ m ; k $ ' c .O n the ba.sis of vari:itionnl equationsa system ofm o r eg e n e ra l covarimite q i i s -
tionsoft h e gravitationsl-inertial field is obtnincd. In the Einstein approximation these equations
reduce tot,lie field equationsof Einstein. Thes o l u t i o nof ftindaniental problcnis in the general t.lieory
ofrelativity by meansof the new equations gives the~ : S I T I Cresu1t.sas thc solution by nieuns of Ein-

stein's equations.However, application of these cquationst ot h ec o x m o l o g i n problem givesarcsolt difftirentf r o m that ohtained by Fricdmarin's theory. Inpart,icular, the solution gives theH i t b b l e lawa s thel a w of rnot,ionof afree body in the incrtial field- in contrastt o Ga.lileo-Newton'sla w .

Theoricd e s Uravitstions-u n dI n e r t i a l f e l d e sd e s Universums.
1.n i oF c l d g l e i c l i n n g e nd c s C r a v ita 1 ,io n s-iind T nert,ialPeldcs
Inhaltuiibersicht. In der Rcihedcr vorliegenden Srbeiten wird einc Vcrsllgcnieincrungtles
nictrivchcn Welt-Tensorsduroh Einfiihrnngd e sT en so rsdes InertialfeltlesZ U I ~
Ausgangspnnlctg c -
riommen.A u s diexer Verallgemeinerung geht insbesondereher vor,d a . B V i g z m zzg l n t ; i.+0 . Dies crlaubt
es als Lagrange-Dicht,edes Feldcst l g.
:
-
L,g z m ; i g ' m ; k $ kzuverwendcn. .4ufG r u n d~ 1 e r V a i i i t t i o n s g I a i c l l u n -

gen ergibt Rich ein Systemv o n allgenieinereii liovarianz~1eichungt:iid(:s Inrrt,ial- tinct Schawcfeldes. Int l e r Eineteinschen Saherung geheii diew Gleichnngen in die Einstcinschen Feldglcichttngen iiber. Beid en Grundproblemerid e r sllgemeincn Kelst.ivitatstlieoricI iofern die neuen Glcicliitngendicselben Ergebnififie\vie die Einsteinschcn. LDagegenfinder1 sich beini kosmologisclien Problem vonder I+'ricd- tnannschen Theorie abweichende Ergebnisse.J i m findet insbesonderedas Hrthk)lcsche Gcsctzids

13c?n.c:gungsgesetz cines freienKijrpcrsi n i 1nert.ialfeld- imG e g c n s a t e ziimG a l i l c i - ~ e e w t o n s c h l l
Gcsctz.
3 . General theoryof relativity( G T R )isk n o w n toproceedf r o i n equivalence of
gravitational fieldsand geometric structuresof the space-time continuum ont h eb a s is
of Riemannian geometry
whereg z k is the spacc-tirnem e t , r i c tensor1),g i k ( i l I )= q i k ( x l ,x 2 ,x3,x4)of Rieiiianniaii
spacea n d the gravitationalf ie ld . Though proceedingf r o m Rieniannia~l
space-timet h e
UTRisb a s e do n the following restrictom:
ds2=gikd x idxk,I ) e tI Y ih.140,g t k
=
7
(1.1)
1)According to propositionsof Riemannian geometryt h e metrict e n s o rg j l L . is rt:st.rict,ed onlyb y
condit,ions in( 1 .1 ) and is arbitrary ino t h e rre s p e c ts .
0.I<.L ) d V T Y A K
248
a) In nonrelntivistic approxiolation arid far fromth c : localized masses the metric
b)Asmall rloniain of Rieiiiannian space is flat, hence again( J ; ~ , J==0.
c) Homogericoiis gravit.ationa1 fielcl imd sccelerational field are equivalent.
1,et11sdwelliipori these items in more detail.
1.1. The c:sistenceof rclnotein a s s e s of tlic Universe, inclnding the ficld inasses, will

1lndoubt.edly irifliieiicc tlit: metric: oftlie real world and create a general 1nctrica.l hack- ground in t k Universe different from Chlilco’s. Therefore evcrywhere in the Universe in diffcrencc to the ideas ofG T Ilg . i k , l .+ 0. This metric:al h,ackground will be called hencefortha n inc.rt.ial field.

Jn order to findt h e way outof this sit.Liation the authors of the well-known scalar theoryI h A H & l S and~ ) I C K E[1 ,‘21 proceeding from $Ilach’s principle suggest.ed an idea within that t.hcory according to which tlicrc trxistsa s c i h r ficld, besides the usual ten-

sor field, witha long-range radius of action andc ltiisc d by uniscrsnlin a s s- t,he “inass
of fixcd stars”.

It. ~liouldbe noted that t.he firsta n d original attenipt to forniuliitc the sca.lar-gravi- tat.ioirnl theory was niadt:b yS T m i u m v I c f ras early as inI 0 6 8[ 3 ] . The subscqnent work, rclated ihideas to this,was the theoiy ofZ A I T S E VaridK O L E S W I K O V

[4].O n e niay also
attribute t,o t,he scalar-gravitational theory the theoriesofH O Y L E[5] andH o u m and
SARLIKAR
[el hsed on Mach’s principle. -4ltogother there were many attemps to genera-
lize theGTR. Among thcmo n es h o u l d inention.J O R D B X S
theory“73, the bimctrical
theoryo fR ~ S E N
[8]a n dK O H L E X
[9]: and especially the tetrad theory of gravitation of
1.2.Asmall domain of Riemannians p a c e cannot bcf l a t , i t should be approximat,ely
siinilar to the flat space, tobeniorc exact: for each of Rieniannian spacea tangentf l a t
space niayh e constructed.H en ce it. follows that though locallyy i k , l arc small quant.ities
ofhighcr order, nevcrthelcss~
i
~
,
~
+0.A s we shalls e e later this condition implies that
inall coordinatc systenis the covariant derivatives ofg i ra r e nonzero cvcrywhere in the
world, i.e.g i k ; I=t=0. Jn contrast t.0 thist h eC T M isbased ont h e postulateg i k i 1=0.
1.3. From the mentioned principleo f equivalence it follows that the theory auto-

matically per1uit.s arbitrary transformations of coordinates, under whicha t linear condi- tions the gravhtional field vanishes or at other conditions new physical fields originatc. This is evidently not correct, because the truc gravitational field, which is equivalent to the geometric structure of Riemannian spacc-t,iine, cannot; he eliminated by ineansof choosing coordinates. On tlic other hand no o1)jt:ctivc physical ficld (in contrast t.0 fictive fields) mayb c created by meansof an arbitrary choice of coordinates.M oreover it is well known that, the principle of equivalencc in thc nlt:ntioncd sense has onlya locale n d approxiniate chtlrilcter.

Jndced,a s shownb yF O C K[111, the equivalence of gravitational and accclerational fields is limited not only .to snrall doniaineso f space and short intervalso f timc, but generally tow c a ka n d homogeneous fieldsanti slow motions. By thc way, here one should not confuse the lawo f cquality of inertial and gravitational inasses with the nientioned principle of equivalence. The mat~lieinat.ical

expression of this principle is the possibility
of introducing t.he locally geodetic coordinatc system s~icli
thatq i k . l= 0. However from
this st.atement an o t quite correct conclusionis drawn byF O C K ,

naincly since the possi- bility of introducing of locally-geodet.ics y s t e n ) is containedi n Riemannian geomet.ry, t,herefore the pointed-ont principlc does not const,itiite a separate physical hypothesis. Actually the availability of sucha possibility in the Riemannian space-t.imei s not nes-

sessary at all. On tlic cont.rary, aswc have seen, everywhere in this spaceg i k , l+=0 .
Therefore the principleof eqnivalcncc of Eiristciri should1 ~ ;
fortiiulatcd ninthenlatically
;is
Sir,=0in locally-geodetic coordinates y n t . c i n : or,as we sliall see later,
tensor describesa flats p a c eq i k , l= 3 8 q i k / a . c l=0.
TREDER[ 101.
*
Gravitational-IncrtialF ieldofU n i v e r s e .I:
2 49
*gak;a=0in all coordinate systems. Without this assumption one cannot construct the
GTR.Thus since in the locally-geodetic systemg l k , l may be equal to zero only approxi-
mately( g i k , l

Actually one more very important fact (usually unnoticed) follows from the prin- ciple of equivalencc, namely that the geodetic line is identified with a trajectory of mo- tion ofafree material particle. Indeed it is wcll known that the notion of affine connec-

tion

is directly connccted with the concept of parallel transfer. On thc basis of parallcl transfer the whole tensor analysis may be Constructed, the expression for the tensorof curvatureR f , , obtained, and geodetic lines be constructed,i.c., the clirvcs of parallel transferof vectoro r tensor with their equations, without introducing the notion of metric (of metrical tensorg i k )A m x i t s o N[ 121.

Indeed let an arbitrary scalar parametert be taken asa parameter changing along the curve of parallel transfer of vectorui,i.e. the curve is parametrically defincdb yt h o equationx i=x,(t) andu i=dxi/dt is a unit tangent vector to the curve. Then the variations of vector components as a result of transfcr from pointillt o p o i n tiM‘ a l o n g

the curve will be equal tod x i ( M ) / d t- d x , ( M ) / d t=-I7i1d x h l d t.Ax,. Dividing theso
equations by the value of transferd t from2ci7t oill’ andtaking thc limit whenr l t-+0
we obtain the equations of the gcodctic line
0) the approximate character of the principle of equivalence follows.
*.
*
d2xi
*.a x l id q
dt2
dtd t
-+ I:,--=0.
*‘
Thc sffine coefficicntsTL.land the scalar paranietert in thew equations arc not related
to the metricof space-time. HoweverT i l may bc exprcssed in terms of any abstract
tensorg i k(and its first derivatives) satisfyingg z k ; l=0 on the basis of expressionsf o r
covariant derivatives:
*
*
*
As a result we have
Thusi t follows that in theQ T R the metric tcnsorq z k ( g n , l $10 ) is identified with an
abstract tensorg i k (g i k ; 2=0).

Meanwhile the trajectory of motion of a frcc partick, in contrast to thc geodetic line, can be obtained only on the basis of real world metricd.92=g,,dxidxl from the principle of least action6 s=-mc61ds =0:

* *
where
Here the conditionq I k i l=0is not imposed. Any other methodof deriving theseequatioils
not proceeding from the nietric results only in the cquations of the geodetic line.

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