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Improving Overhead Computation and pre-processing Time for Grid Scheduling System

Improving Overhead Computation and pre-processing Time for Grid Scheduling System

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Published by ijcsis
Computational Grid is enormous environments with heterogeneous resources and stable infrastructures among other Internet-based computing systems. However, the managing of resources in such systems has its special problems. Scheduler systems need to get last information about participant nodes from information centers for the purpose of firmly job scheduling. In this paper, we focus on online updating resource information centers with processed and provided data based on the assumed hierarchical model. A hybrid knowledge extraction method has been used to classifying grid nodes based on prediction of jobs’ features. An affirmative point of this research is that scheduler systems don’t waste extra time for getting up-to-date information of grid nodes. The experimental result shows the advantages of our approach compared to other conservative methods, especially due to its ability to predict the behavior of nodes based on comprehensive data tables on each node.
Computational Grid is enormous environments with heterogeneous resources and stable infrastructures among other Internet-based computing systems. However, the managing of resources in such systems has its special problems. Scheduler systems need to get last information about participant nodes from information centers for the purpose of firmly job scheduling. In this paper, we focus on online updating resource information centers with processed and provided data based on the assumed hierarchical model. A hybrid knowledge extraction method has been used to classifying grid nodes based on prediction of jobs’ features. An affirmative point of this research is that scheduler systems don’t waste extra time for getting up-to-date information of grid nodes. The experimental result shows the advantages of our approach compared to other conservative methods, especially due to its ability to predict the behavior of nodes based on comprehensive data tables on each node.

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Improving Overhead Computation and pre-processingTimes for Grid Scheduling System
1
Asgarali Bouyer,
2
Mohammad javad Hoseyni,
Department of Computer Science
1,2
Islamic Azad University-Miyandoab branchMiyandoab, Iran
1
basgarali2@live.utm.my, smj.hosseini@gmail.com
Abdul Hanan Abdullah
Faculty of Computer Science and Information SystemsUNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIAJohor, Malaysiahanan@utm.my 
 Abstract
— Computational Grid is enormous environments withheterogeneous resources and stable infrastructures among otherInternet-based computing systems. However, the managing of resources in such systems has its special problems. Schedulersystems need to get last information about participant nodes frominformation centers for the purpose of firmly job scheduling. Inthis paper, we focus on online updating resource informationcenters with processed and provided data based on the assumedhierarchical model. A hybrid knowledge extraction method hasbeen used to classifying grid nodes based on prediction of jobs’features. An affirmative point of this research is that schedulersystems don’t waste extra time for getting up-to-date informationof grid nodes. The experimental result shows the advantages of our approach compared to other conservative methods, especiallydue to its ability to predict the behavior of nodes based oncomprehensive data tables on each node.
 Keywords-component; job scheduling; hierarchical model; Grid  nodes modul; Grid resource information center
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
In computational grid systems, a job or application can bedivided into tasks and distributed to grid nodes. These tasks canbe executed independently at the same time in parallel ways tominimize completion time of job execution. Therefore, gridnodes dynamically share their resources to use by another gridapplication. In order to perform job scheduling and resourcemanagement at Grid level, usually it is used a meta-scheduler.A resource scheduler is fundamental in any large-scale Gridenvironment. The task of a Grid resource broker and schedulerdynamically is to identify and characterize the availableresources, and to select and allocate the most appropriateresources for a given job. In a broker-based managementsystem, brokers are responsible for selecting best nods,ensuring the trustworthiness of the service provider. Resourceselection is an important issue in a grid environment where aconsumer and a service provider are distributed geographicallyacross multiple administrative domains. Choosing the suitableresource for a user job to meet predefined constraints such asdeadline, speedup and cost of execution is an main problem ingrids. As you know, each task has some conditions that must beconsidered by schedulers to select the destination nodes basedon the place of tasks or applications. For example, suitablenode selection can reduce overhead communication and costand makespan and even execution time. Resource discovery isimportant but not enough because of the dynamic variation inthe grid, such that resource prediction is necessary for gridsystem to predict coming status of nodes and their workloads.Therefore, for prediction of node's status, schedulers need toget up-to date or last information about nodes. Anotherproblem is how to get up-to date information about nodes. Inmost of the grid scheduling systems, there are some specialcenters that maintain last information about grid node's statusthat periodically updated by its management section such asMeta-computing Directory Services [1] in Globus toolkit. Inthe Globus Toolkit, Resource and status information isprovided via a LDAP-based network directory called Meta-computing Directory Services (MDS). It has a grid informationservice (GIS) that is responsible for collecting and predictingthe resource status information, such as CPU capacities,memory size, network bandwidth, software availabilities, andload of a site in a particular period. GIS can answer queries forresource information or push information subscribers [2]. n ourresearch, we have used GIS idea to maintain nodes’information, but a little different from Globus’ GIS, forpredicting in a local fashion. For this aim, we used a specialcomponent on all participant Grid nodes that is called gridnode’s module (GNM). In Globus, all processing informationis done by MMDS, and it does not use local processing for thispurpose. However, we have used a local information centereach node to maintain a complete information or backgroundabout its status n order to exactly exploration of knowledge forvaluation and scheduling.The rest of this paper is ordered as follow. In section two, aproblem formulation is described. Some, related works onearlier research have been reviewed in section 3. Our proposedapproach has been discussed in section4. In section 5, theexperimental results and evaluations have been mentioned.Finally, the paper is concluded in section 6.II.
 
P
ROBLEM FORMULATION
 One motivation of Grid computing is to aggregate thepower of widely distributed resources, and provide non-trivial
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 201027http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
services to users. To achieve this goal, an efficient Gridscheduling system must be considered as an essential part of the Grid. Since the grid is a dynamic environment, theprediction and detection of available resources and then use aneconomic policy in resource scheduling for coming jobs withconsider some sensible criteria is important in schedulingcycle. In a Grid environment, prediction of resourceavailability, allocation of proper nodes to desired tasks, a fairlyprice adapter for participant nodes is the prerequisite for areasonable scheduling guarantee. Many approaches for gridmeta-scheduler are discussed from different points of view,such as static and dynamic policies, objective functions,application models, adaptation, QOS constraints, and strategiesdealing with dynamic behavior of resources that have someweaknesses (e.g., complexity time, predicting problems, usingout of date data, unfair, unreliable, nonflexible, etc.). Based onthe current researches, a new approach has been proposed as ahelpful tool for meta-scheduler to do a dynamic and intelligentresource scheduling for grid with considering some importantcriteria such as dynamism, fairness, response time, andreliability.The job scheduling problem is defined as the process of making decision for scheduling tasks of job based on gridresources and services. Grid scheduling problem is formallyrepresented by a set of the given tasks and resources. A gridsystem is composed of a set on nodes as
{ }
n
 N  N 
,...,,N=N
21
 and each node consists of several resources, that is,}R,,R,{R=N
iri2i1i
and each resource is appeared often in allnodes within different characteristics. By a set of the given jobsin time period T, it consists of several jobs within differentcharacteristics, that is,
 j
 J  J  J  J 
,...,,
21
=
that belong to cconsumers
{ }
c
,...,,
21
=
. Each job necessarily is dividedinto several tasks, that is,
{ }
iiiii
 J 
,...,,,
321
=
. The mainobjective in most scheduling systems often is to design ascheduling policy for scheduling submitted jobs with the goalof maximizing throughput and efficiency and also minimizing job completion times. Job’s scheduling is generally brokendown into three steps:
1- To define a comprehensive and versatile method and divide fairly job between grid nodes.2- The allocation of tasks to the computing nodes based on userrequirement and grid facilities.3- The monitoring of running grid tasks on the nodes over time andreliability factors.
With a large number of users attempting to execute jobsconcurrently on the grid computing, parallelism of theapplications and their respective computational and storagerequirements are all issues that make the resource schedulingproblem difficult in these systems.III.
 
R
ELATED WORKS
 Condor’s Matchmaker [3-5] adopts a centralizedmechanism to match the advertisement between resourcerequesters and resource providers. However, these centralizedservers can become bottlenecks and points of failures. So thesystem would not scale well when the number of the nodesincreases.AppLeS (Application Level Scheduling) [6] focuses ondeveloping scheduling agents for individual Grid applications.It applies agents for individual Grid applications. These agentsuse application oriented scheduling, and select a set of resources taking into consideration application and resourceinformation. AppLeS is more suitable for Grid environmentwith its sophisticated NWS[7] mechanism for collecting systeminformation [8]. However, it performs resource discovering andscheduling without considering resource owner policies.AppLeS do not have powerful resource managers that cannegotiate with applications to balance the interests of differentapplications [8]. EMPEROR [9] provides a framework forimplementing scheduling algorithms based on performancecriteria. The implementation is based on the Open GridServices Architecture (OGSA) and makes use of commonGlobus services for tasks such as monitoring, discovery, and job execution. EMPEROR is focused on resource performanceprediction and is not distributed nor does it support economicallocation mechanisms.Singh et al. proposed an approach for solving the Gridresource management problem by taking intoconsideration[10]. The paper proposed an approach aimed atobtaining guarantees on the allocation of resources to task graph structured applications. In mentioned research, resourceavailabilities are advertised as priced time slots, and the authorspresented the design of a resource scheduler that generates andadvertises the time slots. Moreover, Singh et al. demonstratedthat their proposed framework (incorporating resourcereservation) can deliver better performance for applicationsthan the best effort approach.Another work has been done by Chao et al. that is acoordination mechanism based on group selections of self-organizing agents operating in a computational Grid [18]. Theauthors argued that due to the scale and dynamicity of computational Grids, the availability of resources and theirvarying characteristics, manual management of Grid resourcesis a complex task, and automated and adaptive resourcemanagement using self-organizing agents is a possible solutionto address this problem. Authors have pointed out that for Gridresource management, examples in which performanceenhancement can be achieved through agent-basedcoordination include: decision making in resource allocationand job scheduling, and policy coordination in virtualorganizations.Kertész and Kacsuk have argued that there are threepossible levels of interaction to achieve interoperability inGrids: operating system level, Grid middleware level, andhigher-level services level [11]. Authors described threeapproaches to address the issue of Grid interoperability,namely: 1) extending current Grid resource managementsystems; 2) multi-broker utilization; and 3) meta-brokering. Inextending current Grid resource management systems, theydeveloped a tool called GTBroker that interacts with Globusresources and performs job submission. This proposed meta-brokering service is designed for determining which Gridbroker should be best selected and concealing the differences inutilizing them. Extra to the meta-brokering service, theyproposed a development of the Broker Property DescriptionLanguage (BPDL) that is designed for expressing metadata
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 201028http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
about brokers. The authors have also implemented their ideasin the Grid meta-broker architecture that enables users toaccess resources of different Grids through their own broker(s).Many other considerable approach such as hierarchical gridresource management [12], a new prediction-based method fordynamic resource provisioning and scaling of MMOGs in grid[13], aggregated resource information for resource selectionmethods by grid broker[14] has been offered with considerableidea that is recommended for researches as hopeful methods.IV.
 
G
RID
N
ODE
S
M
ODULE FOR OPTIMIZED SCHEDULING
Most of grid scheduling systems consist of two maincomponents: nodes, and schedulers. Scheduler can beconsidered as local schedulers and meta-schedulers. In someearlier methods [3, 15-18] meta-scheduler, as the maincomponent, are responsible for job scheduling. However, thereis other scheduling methods [19-23] in which local schedulersperform most of job scheduling steps. These mentionedmethods have not applied the impact of using grid nodes inscheduling system and they only map jobs to nodes. In thissection we are going to devolve some steps of schedulingprocess to grid nodes or all participant nodes in grid system.A general architecture of the grid scheduling system hasbeen depicted in Fig.1. Since, this architecture uses an auctionmechanism by meta-scheduler and participant local schedulersfor job submission and resource allocation like other methods,we only focus on Grid Node’s Module (GNM) as a significantpart of our research. Note that the model described here doesnot prescribe any implementation details; the protocols,programming languages, operating systems, user interfaces andother components. Proposed architecture uses a hierarchicalmodel with minimum communication cost and time.In this research, the knowledge extraction module isdevolved to Provider Node (PN). In many approaches [24], theneeded information is gathered in special places in order tomanage by Grid Resource Brokers or Meta-Schedulers thatsurely take much time or have the problem of out-of-dateinformation. Here, the proposed module for provider nodesaves all required information in the local database and it willdo knowledge extraction methods in a local fashion. Finally,the summarized information about each grid node’s status issaved in local scheduler’s data tables and dynamically isupdated by an online method [25]. A new illustration of GNMis depicted in Fig. 2 with more details.
Figure 2. The Grid Node’s Module (GNM) with more details.
 A.
 
Knowledge Extraction
The applied methods for knowledge extraction are RoughSet theory and Case-based Reasoning. GNM uses Case-BasedReasoning (CBR) technique and Rough Set Analysis. Thesetechniques work together to discover knowledge in order tosupply a satisfied recommendation to send to local scheduler.The exploration is based on previous data or experiments onthe “node data table” that is helpful to make a better decision.Use of multiple knowledge extraction methods is beneficialbecause the strengths of individual technique can be leveraged.In previous research [18], we proposed a learning method forresource allocation based on the fuzzy decision tree. Thismethod observed that it has a successful potential to increaseaccuracy and reliability if the job length is large. However, inthis section, we use a hybrid of CBR and RS to get the exactknowledge with considering economic aspects. This section isdivided in three sub-sections: Rough Set Analyzer, Case-basedreasoning method, and calculating some information forcomputing of priority.
Figure 1. A hierarchical architecture for optimized scheduling.
 Gi   d  N o d  e M o d  ul   e 
Knowledge extraction (RS and CBR)
 Local DB
Task ManagementStatus announcer andadjustment
 o c  a l  - S  c  e  d  ul   e m o d  ul   e 
LS-DBBidding servicesInfo CollectorFault Tolerance providerSender/ ReceiverJob ManagerCoordinator layer
M e  t   a - S  c  e  d  ul   e m o d  ul   e 
 Auction ManagerMs-DBFault Tolerance ManagementNew Arrival Job Queues
GNM
 
Knowledge Extraction
 
Interface (
input/output 
)
 
Updating Data FileAnnouncer SectionNode StatusAnnouncingPrice adjustingUrgent ChangeLocal-DB
Preparing message
Task-ManagementPre-processingTask Submission
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 201029http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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