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ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A Survey Approach

ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A Survey Approach

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Published by ijcsis
ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in an ECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. This feature extraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals in the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value of P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human. Recently, numerous research and techniques have been developed for analyzing the ECG signal. The proposed schemes were mostly based on Fuzzy Logic Methods, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and other Signal Analysis techniques. All these techniques and algorithms have their advantages and limitations. This proposed paper discusses various techniques and transformations proposed earlier in literature for extracting feature from an ECG signal. In addition this paper also provides a comparative study of various methods proposed by researchers in extracting the feature from ECG signal.
ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in an ECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. This feature extraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals in the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value of P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human. Recently, numerous research and techniques have been developed for analyzing the ECG signal. The proposed schemes were mostly based on Fuzzy Logic Methods, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and other Signal Analysis techniques. All these techniques and algorithms have their advantages and limitations. This proposed paper discusses various techniques and transformations proposed earlier in literature for extracting feature from an ECG signal. In addition this paper also provides a comparative study of various methods proposed by researchers in extracting the feature from ECG signal.

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  Abstract 
 — 
ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role indiagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in anECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. This featureextraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals in theECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes andintervals value of P-QRS-T segment determines the functioningof heart of every human. Recently, numerous research andtechniques have been developed for analyzing the ECG signal.The proposed schemes were mostly based on Fuzzy LogicMethods, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithm(GA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and other SignalAnalysis techniques. All these techniques and algorithms havetheir advantages and limitations. This proposed paper discussesvarious techniques and transformations proposed earlier inliterature for extracting feature from an ECG signal. In additionthis paper also provides a comparative study of various methodsproposed by researchers in extracting the feature from ECGsignal.
 Keywords
 — 
 Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Cardiac Cycle, ECG signal, Feature Extraction, Fuzzy Logic, Genetic Algorithm(GA), and Support Vector Machines (SVM).
I.
 
INTRODUCTIONThe investigation of the ECG has been extensively used for diagnosing many cardiac diseases. The ECG is a realisticrecord of the direction and magnitude of the electricalcommotion that is generated by depolarization and re- polarization of the atria and ventricles. One cardiac cycle in anECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. Figure 1 shows asample ECG signal. The majority of the clinically usefulinformation in the ECG is originated in the intervals andamplitudes defined by its features (characteristic wave peaksand time durations). The improvement of precise and rapidmethods for automatic ECG feature extraction is of chief importance, particularly for the examination of longrecordings [1].The ECG feature extraction system provides fundamentalfeatures (amplitudes and intervals) to be used in subsequentautomatic analysis. In recent times, a number of techniqueshave been proposed to detect these features [2] [3] [4]. The previously proposed method of ECG signal analysis was basedon time domain method. But this is not always adequate tostudy all the features of ECG signals. Therefore the frequencyrepresentation of a signal is required. The deviations in thenormal electrical patterns indicate various cardiac disorders.Cardiac cells, in the normal state are electrically polarized [5].ECG is essentially responsible for patient monitoring anddiagnosis. The extracted feature from the ECG signal plays avital in diagnosing the cardiac disease. The development of accurate and quick methods for automatic ECG featureextraction is of major importance. Therefore it is necessarythat the feature extraction system performs accurately. The purpose of feature extraction is to find as few properties as possible within ECG signal that would allow successfulabnormality detection and efficient prognosis.
Figure.1 A Sample ECG Signal showing P-QRS-T Wave
In recent year, several research and algorithm have beendeveloped for the exertion of analyzing and classifying theECG signal. The classifying method which have been proposed during the last decade and under evaluation includesdigital signal analysis, Fuzzy Logic methods, Artificial Neural Network, Hidden Markov Model, Genetic Algorithm, SupportVector Machines, Self-Organizing Map, Bayesian and other method with each approach exhibiting its own advantages anddisadvantages. This paper provides an over view on varioustechniques and transformations used for extracting the featurefrom ECG signal. In addition the future enhancement gives ageneral idea for improvement and development of the featureextraction techniques.The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. Section2 discusses the related work that was earlier proposed inliterature for ECG feature extraction. Section 3 gives a generalidea of further improvements of the earlier approaches in ECG
ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A SurveyApproach
S.Karpagachelvi, Dr.M.Arthanari, Prof. & Head,
 
M.Sivakumar 
,Doctoral Research Scholar, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Doctoral Research Scholar,Mother Teresa Women's University, Tejaa Shakthi Institute of Technology for Women, Anna University Coimbatore,Kodaikanal, Tamilnadu, India. Coimbatore- 641 659, Tamilnadu, India. Tamilnadu, Indiaemail :karpagachelvis@yahoo.comemail:arthanarimsvc@gmail.comemail :sivala@gmail.com 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 201076http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
feature detection, and Section 4 concludes the paper withfewer discussions.II.
 
L
ITERATURE
EVIEW
 ECG feature extraction has been studied from early time andlots of advanced techniques as well as transformations have been proposed for accurate and fast ECG feature extraction.This section of the paper discusses various techniques andtransformations proposed earlier in literature for extractingfeature from ECG.Zhao et al. [6] proposed a feature extraction method usingwavelet transform and support vector machines. The paper  presented a new approach to the feature extraction for reliableheart rhythm recognition. The proposed system of classification is comprised of three components including data preprocessing, feature extraction and classification of ECGsignals. Two diverse feature extraction methods are appliedtogether to achieve the feature vector of ECG data. Thewavelet transform is used to extract the coefficients of thetransform as the features of each ECG segment. Concurrently,autoregressive modeling (AR) is also applied to get hold of thetemporal structures of ECG waveforms. Then at last thesupport vector machine (SVM) with Gaussian kernel is used toclassify different ECG heart rhythm. The results of computer simulations provided to determine the performance of the proposed approach reached the overall accuracy of 99.68%.A novel approach for ECG feature extraction was put forth by Castro et al. in [7]. Their proposed paper present analgorithm, based on the wavelet transform, for featureextraction from an electrocardiograph (ECG) signal andrecognition of abnormal heartbeats. Since wavelet transformscan be localized both in the frequency and time domains. Theydeveloped a method for choosing an optimal mother waveletfrom a set of orthogonal and bi-orthogonal wavelet filter bank  by means of the best correlation with the ECG signal. Theforemost step of their approach is to denoise (remove noise)the ECG signal by a soft or hard threshold with limitation of 99.99 reconstructs ability and then each PQRST cycle isdecomposed into a coefficients vector by the optimal waveletfunction. The coefficients, approximations of the last scalelevel and the details of the all levels, are used for the ECGanalyzed. They divided the coefficients of each cycle intothree segments that are related to P-wave, QRS complex, andT-wave. The summation of the values from these segments provided the feature vectors of single cycles.Mahmoodabadi et al. in [1] described an approach for ECGfeature extraction which utilizes Daubechies Waveletstransform. They had developed and evaluated anelectrocardiogram (ECG) feature extraction system based onthe multi-resolution wavelet transform. The ECG signals fromModified Lead II (MLII) were chosen for processing. Thewavelet filter with scaling function further intimately similar to the shape of the ECG signal achieved better detection. Theforemost step of their approach was to de-noise the ECGsignal by removing the equivalent wavelet coefficients athigher scales. Then, QRS complexes are detected and eachone complex is used to trace the peaks of the individualwaves, including onsets and offsets of the P and T waveswhich are present in one cardiac cycle. Their experimentalresults revealed that their proposed approach for ECG featureextraction achieved sensitivity of 99.18% and a positive predictivity of 98%.A Mathematical morphology for ECG feature extractionwas proposed by Tadejko and Rakowski in [8]. The primaryfocus of their work is to evaluate the classification performance of an automatic classifier of theelectrocardiogram (ECG) for the detection abnormal beatswith new concept of feature extraction stage. The obtainedfeature sets were based on ECG morphology and RR-intervals.Configuration adopted a well known Kohonen self-organizingmaps (SOM) for examination of signal features and clustering.A classifier was developed with SOM and learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms using the data from the recordsrecommended by ANSI/AAMI EC57 standard. In additiontheir work compares two strategies for classification of annotated QRS complexes: based on original ECGmorphology features and proposed new approach - based on preprocessed ECG morphology features. The mathematicalmorphology filtering is used for the preprocessing of ECGsignal.Sufi et al. in [9] formulated a new ECG obfuscation methodfor feature extraction and corruption detection. They present anew ECG obfuscation method, which uses cross correlation based template matching approach to distinguish all ECGfeatures followed by corruption of those features with addednoises. It is extremely difficult to reconstruct the obfuscatedfeatures without the knowledge of the templates used for feature matching and the noise. Therefore, they consideredthree templates and three noises for P wave, QRS Complexand T wave comprise the key, which is only 0.4%-0.9% of theoriginal ECG file size. The key distribution among theauthorized doctors is efficient and fast because of its smallsize. To conclude, the experiments carried on withunimaginably high number of noise combinations the securitystrength of the presented method was very high.Saxena et al in [10] described an approach for effectivefeature extraction form ECG signals. Their paper deals with ancompetent composite method which has been developed for data compression, signal retrieval and feature extraction of ECG signals. After signal retrieval from the compressed data,it has been found that the network not only compresses thedata, but also improves the quality of retrieved ECG signalwith respect to elimination of high-frequency interference present in the original signal. With the implementation of artificial neural network (ANN) the compression ratioincreases as the number of ECG cycle increases. Moreover thefeatures extracted by amplitude, slope and duration criteriafrom the retrieved signal match with the features of theoriginal signal. Their experimental results at every stage aresteady and consistent and prove beyond doubt that thecomposite method can be used for efficient data managementand feature extraction of ECG signals in many real-timeapplications.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 201077http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 A feature extraction method using Discrete WaveletTransform (DWT) was proposed by Emran et al. in [11]. Theyused a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to extract therelevant information from the ECG input data in order to perform the classification task. Their proposed work includesthe following modules data acquisition, pre-processing beatdetection, feature extraction and classification. In the featureextraction module the Wavelet Transform (DWT) is designedto address the problem of non-stationary ECG signals. It wasderived from a single generating function called the mother wavelet by translation and dilation operations. Using DWT infeature extraction may lead to an optimal frequency resolutionin all frequency ranges as it has a varying window size, broadat lower frequencies, and narrow at higher frequencies. TheDWT characterization will deliver the stable features to themorphology variations of the ECG waveforms.Tayel and Bouridy together in [12] put forth a technique for ECG image classification by extracting their feature usingwavelet transformation and neural networks. Features areextracted from wavelet decomposition of the ECG imagesintensity. The obtained ECG features are then further  processed using artificial neural networks. The features are:mean, median, maximum, minimum, range, standarddeviation, variance, and mean absolute deviation. Theintroduced ANN was trained by the main features of the 63ECG images of different diseases. The test results showed thatthe classification accuracy of the introduced classifier was upto 92%. The extracted features of the ECG signal usingwavelet decomposition was effectively utilized by ANN in producing the classification accuracy of 92%.Alan and Nikola in [13] proposed chaos theory that can besuccessfully applied to ECG feature extraction. They alsodiscussed numerous chaos methods, including phase space andattractors, correlation dimension, spatial filling index, centraltendency measure and approximate entropy. They created anew feature extraction environment called ECG chaosextractor to apply the above mentioned chaos methods. A newsemi-automatic program for ECG feature extraction has beenimplemented and is presented in this article. Graphicalinterface is used to specify ECG files employed in theextraction procedure as well as for method selection andresults saving. The program extracts features from ECG files.An algorithm was presented by Chouhan and Mehta in [14]for detection of QRS complexities. The recognition of QRS-complexes forms the origin for more or less all automatedECG analysis algorithms. The presented algorithm utilizes amodified definition of slope, of ECG signal, as the feature for detection of QRS. A succession of transformations of thefiltered and baseline drift corrected ECG signal is used for mining of a new modified slope-feature. In the presentedalgorithm, filtering procedure based on moving averages [15] provides smooth spike-free ECG signal, which is appropriatefor slope feature extraction. The foremost step is to extortslope feature from the filtered and drift corrected ECG signal, by processing and transforming it, in such a way that theextracted feature signal is significantly enhanced in QRSregion and suppressed in non-QRS region. The proposedmethod has detection rate and positive predictivity of 98.56%and 99.18% respectively.Xu et al. in [16] described an algorithm using Slope Vector Waveform (SVW) for ECG QRS complex detection and RR interval evaluation. In their proposed method variable stagedifferentiation is used to achieve the desired slope vectors for feature extraction, and the non-linear amplification is used toget better of the signal-to-noise ratio. The method allows for afast and accurate search of the R location, QRS complexduration, and RR interval and yields excellent ECG featureextraction results. In order to get QRS durations, the featureextraction rules are needed.A method for automatic extraction of both time interval andmorphological features, from the Electrocardiogram (ECG) toclassify ECGs into normal and arrhythmic was described byAlexakis et al. in [17]. The method utilized the combination of artificial neural networks (ANN) and Linear DiscriminantAnalysis (LDA) techniques for feature extraction. Five ECGfeatures namely RR, RTc, T wave amplitude, T wave skewness, and T wave kurtosis were used in their method. Thesefeatures are obtained with the assistance of automaticalgorithms. The onset and end of the T wave were detectedusing the tangent method. The three feature combinations usedhad very analogous performance when considering theaverage performance metrics.A modified combined wavelet transforms technique wasdeveloped by Saxena et al. in [18]. The technique has beendeveloped to analyze multi lead electrocardiogram signals for cardiac disease diagnostics. Two wavelets have been used, i.e.a quadratic spline wavelet (QSWT) for QRS detection and theDaubechies six coefficient (DU6) wavelet for P and Tdetection. A procedure has been evolved usingelectrocardiogram parameters with a point scoring system for diagnosis of various cardiac diseases. The consistency andreliability of the identified and measured parameters wereconfirmed when both the diagnostic criteria gave the sameresults. Table 1 shows the comparison of different ECG signalfeature extraction techniques.A robust ECG feature extraction scheme was put forth byOlvera in [19]. The proposed method utilizes a matched filter to detect different signal features on a human heartelectrocardiogram signal. The detection of the ST segment,which is a precursor of possible cardiac problems, was moredifficult to extract using the matched filter due to noise andamplitude variability. By improving on the methods used;using a different form of the matched filter and better threshold detection, the matched filter ECG feature extractioncould be made more successful. The detection of differentfeatures in the ECG waveform was much harder thananticipated but it was not due to the implementation of thematched filter. The more complex part was creating therevealing method to remove the feature of interest in eachECG signal.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 201078http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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