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Detecting Security threats in the Router using Computational Intelligence

Detecting Security threats in the Router using Computational Intelligence

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Published by ijcsis
Information security is an issue of global concern. As the Internet is delivering great convenience and benefits to the modern society, the rapidly increasing connectivity and accessibility to the Internet is also posing a serious threat to security and privacy, to individuals, organizations, and nations alike. Finding effective ways to detect, prevent, and respond to intrusions and hacker attacks of networked computers and information systems. This paper presents a knowledge discovery frame work to detect DoS attacks at the boundary controllers (routers). The idea is to use machine learning approach to discover network features that can depict the state of the network connection. Using important network data (DoS relevant features), we have developed kernel machine based and soft computing detection mechanisms that achieve high detection accuracies. We also present our work of identifying DoS pertinent features and evaluating the applicability of these features in detecting novel DoS attacks. Architecture for detecting DoS attacks at the router is presented. We demonstrate that highly efficient and accurate signature based classifiers can be constructed by using important network features and machine learning techniques to detect DoS attacks at the boundary controllers.
Information security is an issue of global concern. As the Internet is delivering great convenience and benefits to the modern society, the rapidly increasing connectivity and accessibility to the Internet is also posing a serious threat to security and privacy, to individuals, organizations, and nations alike. Finding effective ways to detect, prevent, and respond to intrusions and hacker attacks of networked computers and information systems. This paper presents a knowledge discovery frame work to detect DoS attacks at the boundary controllers (routers). The idea is to use machine learning approach to discover network features that can depict the state of the network connection. Using important network data (DoS relevant features), we have developed kernel machine based and soft computing detection mechanisms that achieve high detection accuracies. We also present our work of identifying DoS pertinent features and evaluating the applicability of these features in detecting novel DoS attacks. Architecture for detecting DoS attacks at the router is presented. We demonstrate that highly efficient and accurate signature based classifiers can be constructed by using important network features and machine learning techniques to detect DoS attacks at the boundary controllers.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 30, 2010
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Detecting Security threats in the Router usingComputational Intelligence
J.Visumathi
Research ScholarSathyabama University,Chennai-600 119 jsvisu@gmail.com
Dr. K. L. Shunmuganathan
Professor & Head, Department of CSER.M.K. Engineering CollegeChennai-601 206Kls_nathan@yahoo.com
Abstract
Information security is an issue of global concern. As theInternet is delivering great convenience and benefits to themodern society, the rapidly increasing connectivity andaccessibility to the Internet is also posing a serious threat tosecurity and privacy, to individuals, organizations, and nationsalike. Finding effective ways to detect, prevent, and respond tointrusions and hacker attacks of networked computers andinformation systems. This paper presents a knowledge discoveryframe work to detect DoS attacks at the boundary controllers(routers). The idea is to use machine learning approach todiscover network features that can depict the state of thenetwork connection. Using important network data (DoSrelevant features), we have developed kernel machine based andsoft computing detection mechanisms that achieve high detectionaccuracies. We also present our work of identifying DoSpertinent features and evaluating the applicability of thesefeatures in detecting novel DoS attacks. Architecture fordetecting DoS attacks at the router is presented. Wedemonstrate that highly efficient and accurate signature basedclassifiers can be constructed by using important networkfeatures and machine learning techniques to detect DoS attacksat the boundary controllers.
 Keywords: Denial of service attacks, information assurance,intrusion detection, machine learning, feature ranking, data reduction
 
1
 
Introduction
By nature Internet is public, connected, distributed,open, and dynamic. Phenomenal growth of computingdevices, connectivity speed, and number of applicationsrunning on networked systems posed engendering risk to theInternet. Malicious usage, attacks, and sabotage have been onthe rise as more and more computing devices are put into use.Connecting information systems to networks such as theInternet and public telephone systems further magnifies thepotential for exposure through a variety of attack channels.These attacks take advantage of the flaws or omissions thatexist within the various information systems and software thatrun on many hosts in the network.In DoS attacks the adversary mainly targets a fewservices like network bandwidth, router or server CPU cycles,system storage, operating system data structures, protocoldata structures and software vulnerabilities. DoS can be asingle source attack, originating at a single host, or can be amulti-source source attack, where multiple hosts andnetworks are involved. The DoS attacks can take anadvantage form the distributed nature of the Internet bylaunching a multiplicative effect, resulting in distributed DoS.Due to the use of dynamic protocols and address spoofing,detecting distributed and automated attacks still remains achallenge.Efforts on how to define and characterize denial of service attacks through a collection of different perspectivessuch as bandwidth, process information, system information,user information and IP address is being proposed by severalresearchers [1,6]. Using the defined characteristics a fewsignature-based and anomaly based detection techniques areproposed [2,9]. Recent malware and distributed DoS attacksproved that there exists no effective means to detect, respondand mitigate availability attacks.In this paper we propose a router based approach todetect denial of service attacks using intelligent systems. Acomparative study of support vector machines (SVMs), Multiadaptive regression splines (MARSs) and linear geneticprograms (LGPs) for detecting denial of service attacks isperformed through a variety of experiments performed on awell know Lincoln Labs data set that consists of more than80% of different denial of service attacks described in section2. We address the use of machine learning approach todiscover network features that can depict the state of thenetwork connection. We also present our work of identifyingDoS pertinent features from a publicly available intrusiondetection data set and evaluating the applicability of thesefeatures in detecting novel DoS attacks on a live performancenetwork. Architecture for detecting DoS attacks at the routers.In the rest of the paper, a brief introduction to the dataused and DoS attacks is given in section 2. An overview of soft computing paradigms used is
 
given in section 3.Experiments for detecting DoS attacks using
 
MARs
,
SVMsand LGPs are given in section 4. Significant featureidentification techniques are presented in section 5. In section
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010106http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
6 we present the architecture and the applicability of DoSsignificant features in detecting DoS attacks at the routers.Conclusions are presented in section 7.
2
 
Intrusion detection data
A sub set of the DARPA intrusion detection data set isused for off-line analysis. In the DARPA intrusion detectionevaluation program, an environment was set up to acquire rawTCP/IP dump data for a network by simulating a typical U.S.Air Force LAN. The LAN was operated like a realenvironment, but being blasted with multiple attacks [5,11].For each TCP/IP connection, 41 various quantitative andqualitative features were extracted [16]. The 41 featuresextracted fall into three categorties, “intrinsic” features thatdescribe about the individual TCP/IP connections; can beobtained form network audit trails, “content-based” featuresthat describe about payload of the network packet; can beobtained from the data portion of the network packet, “traffic-based” features, that are computed using a specific window.
 2.1
 
 Denial of service attacks
Attacks designed to make a host or network incapable of providing normal services are known as denial of serviceattacks. There are different types of DoS attacks: a few of them abuse the computers legitimate features; a few target theimplementations bugs; and a few exploit themisconfigurations. DoS attacks are classified based on theservices that an adversary makes unavailable to legitimateusers. A few examples include preventing legitimate network traffic, preventing access to services for a group orindividuals. DoS attacks used for offline experiments andidentifying significant features are presented in table 1 [5,11].
TABLE 1: DoS Attack Description
Attack TypeServiceEffect of theattack Apache2 http Crashes httpdLand httpFreezes themachineMail bomb N/A AnnoyanceSYN Flood TCPDenies serviceon one ormore portsPing of Death Icmp NoneProcess table TCPDenies newprocessesSmurf IcmpSlows downthe network Syslogd SyslogKills theSyslogdTeardrop N/AReboots themachineUdpstrom EchoSlows downthe network 
3
 
Soft computing paradigms
Soft computing was first proposed by Zadeh to constructnew generation computationally intelligent hybrid systemsconsisting of neural networks, fuzzy inference system,approximate reasoning and derivative free optimizationtechniques. It is well known that the intelligent systems,which can provide human like expertise such as domainknowledge, uncertain reasoning, and adaptation to a noisy andtime varying environment, are important in tackling practicalcomputing problems. In contrast with conventional ArtificialIntelligence (AI) techniques which only deal with precision,certainty and rigor the guiding principle of hybrid systems isto exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, lowsolution cost, robustness, partial truth to achieve tractability,and better rapport with reality
 3.1
 
Support vector machines
The SVM approach transforms data into a feature spaceF that usually has a huge dimension. It is interesting to notethat SVM generalization depends on the geometricalcharacteristics of the training data, not on the dimensions of the input space [3,4]. Training a support vector machine(SVM) leads to a quadratic optimization problem with boundconstraints and one linear equality constraint. Vapnik showshow training a SVM for the pattern recognition problem leadsto the following quadratic optimization problem .Minimize:
= ==
+=
li jil j ji ji lii
 x x y y
111
),(21)(
α α α α 
(1)Subject to
i y
iliii
=
α α 
0:
1
(2)Where l is the number of training examples
α 
is a vector of lvariables and each component
i
α 
corresponds to a trainingexample (x
i
, y
i
). The solution of (1) is the vector
*
α 
for which(1) is minimized and (2) is fulfilled.
 3.2
 
 Linear genetic programs
LGP is a variant of the Genetic Programming (GP)technique that acts on linear genomes . The linear geneticprogramming technique used for our current experiment isbased on machine code level manipulation and evaluation of programs. Its main characteristics in comparison to tree-based GP lies is that the evolvable units are not theexpressions of a functional programming language (likeLISP), but the programs of an imperative language (like C)
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010107http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
are evolved. In the Automatic Induction of Machine Code byGenetic Programming, individuals are manipulated directly asbinary code in memory and executed directly without passingan interpreter during fitness calculation. The LGP tournamentselection procedure puts the lowest selection pressure on theindividuals by allowing only two individuals to participate ina tournament. A copy of the winner replaces the loser of eachtournament. The crossover points only occur betweeninstructions. Inside instructions the mutation operationrandomly replaces the instruction identifier, a variable or theconstant from valid ranges. In LGP the maximum size of theprogram is usually restricted to prevent programs without
 
bounds.
 
As LGP could be implemented at machine codelevel, it will be fast to detect intrusions in a near real timemode.
 3.3
 
 Multi adaptive regression splines
Splines can be considered as an innovative mathematicalprocess for complicated curve drawings and functionapproximation. To develop a spline the X-axis is broken into aconvenient number of regions. The boundary between regionsis also known as a knot. With a sufficiently large number of knots virtually any shape can be well approximated. While itis easy to draw a spline in 2-dimensions by keying on knotlocations (approximating using linear, quadratic or cubicpolynomial etc.), manipulating the mathematics in higherdimensions is best accomplished using basis functions. TheMARS model is a regression model using basis functions aspredictors in place of the original data. The basis functiontransform makes it possible to selectively blank out certainregions of a variable by making them zero, and allows MARSto focus on specific sub-regions of the data. It excels atfinding optimal variable transformations and interactions, andthe complex data structure that often hides in high-dimensional data .
4
 
Offline evaluation
We partition the data into the two classes of “Normal”and “DoS” patterns, where the DoS attack is a collection of six different attacks (back, neptune, ping of death, land,smurf, and teardrop). The objective is to separate normal andDoS patterns. The (training and testing) data set contains11982 randomly generated from data described in section 3,with the number of data from each class proportional to itssize, except that the smallest class is completely included. Adifferent randomly selected set of 6890 points of the total dataset (11982) is used for testing different soft computingparadigms. Results of SVM, MARS and LGP classificationsare given in Table 2.
TABLE 2: Classifier Evaluation for Offline DoS Data
Classifier Accuracy (%)ClassSVM LGP MARSNormal 98.42 99.64 99.71DoS 99.45 99.90 96
5
 
Significant feature identification
Feature selection and ranking is an important issue inintrusion detection. Of the large number of features that canbe monitored for intrusion detection purpose, which are trulyuseful, which are less significant, and which may be useless?The question is relevant because the elimination of uselessfeatures enhances the accuracy of detection while speeding upthe computation, thus improving the overall performance of an IDS. In cases where there are no useless features, byconcentrating on the most important ones we may wellimprove the time performance of an IDS without affecting theaccuracy of detection in statistically significant ways.
 
Having a large number of input variables x = (x
1
, x
2
, …,x
n
) of varying degrees of importance to the output y; i.e.,some elements of x are essential, some are less important,some of them may not be mutually independent, andsome may be useless or irrelevant (in determining thevalue of y)
 
Lacking an analytical model that provides the basis for amathematical formula that precisely describes the input-output relationship, y = F (x)
 
Having available a finite set of experimental data, basedon which a model (e.g. neural networks) can be built forsimulation and prediction purposes
 5.1
 
Support vector decision function ranking
Information about the features and their contributiontowards classification is hidden in the support vector decisionfunction. Using this information one can rank theirsignificance, i.e., in the equationF (X) =
Σ
WiXi+ b (3)The point X belongs to the positive class if F(X) is apositive value. The point X belongs to the negative class if F(X) is negative. The value of F(X) depends on thecontribution of each value of X and W
i
. The absolute value of 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010108http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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