Figure1.MIMO architecture for the downlink of 802.16m systems.
WiMAX and 3GPP networks employing MU-MIMO will need to calculate which users should transmitand receive during each frame, as well as the bestachievable rate that corresponds to each user based on their QoS requirements, the number of users in each cell and their position. Although the information-theoretic capacity has been characterized, this is not an easy task, even for narrowband systems,and it is even more challenging whenall subcarriers of the OFDMA system are considered.Therefore, ef
ﬁcient algorithms will be needed at the base
station for user selection that will also determine the beamforming
ﬁlters for the downlink, the receiver ﬁl
ters for the uplink and the required power allocation at the basestation and each mobile station.
Aggregate Data Rate63 Mbps100Mbps for mobilestations, 1 Gbps for fixedOperating RadioFrequency2.3 GHz, 2.5-2.7GHz, 3.5 GHz< 6 GHzDuplexing SchemesTDD and FDDTDD and FDDMIMO supportup to 4 streams, nolimit on antennas4 or 8 streams, no limiton antennasCoverage10km3 km, 5-30 km and 30-100 kmHandover Inter-frequencyInterruption Time35-50 msdepending on scenarioHandover Intra-frequencyInterruption Time Not Specified30 msHandover between802.16 standards(for correspondingmobile station)From 802.16eserving BS to802.16e target BS100 msHandover with other technologies Not SpecifiedFrom legacy serving BSto legacy target BSFrom 802.16m servingBS to legacy target BSFrom legacy serving BSto 802.16m target BSFrom 802.16m servingBS to 802.16mtargetBSMobility SpeedVehicular: 120 km/hIEEE 802.11, 3GPP2,GSM/EDGE, (E-)UTRA (LTE TDD)Using IEEE 802.21Media IndependentHandover (MIH)Position accuracy Not SpecifiedIndoor: 10 km/hBasic Coverage Urban:120 km/hHigh Speed: 350 km/hLocation DeterminationLatency: 30 s
C.Resource allocation and multi-cell MIMO
In cellular networks careful frequency planning isrequired in order to achieve communication with smalloutage probability and, at the same time, minimizeinterference among users of neighboring cells. Users near thecell edges are particularly vulnerable, because they receivesignals of comparable strength from more than one basestations. For this reason, different parts of the frequencyspectrum are typically assigned to neighboring cells. Theassignment in current systems is static and can only bechanged by manual re-con
ﬁguration of the system. Changes
to the frequency allocation can only be performed periodically and careful cell planning is required in order notto affect other parts of the system. Frequencies are reused bycells that are sufficiently far away so that the interferencecaused by transmissions on the same frequencies is smallenough to guarantee satisfactory Signal-to-Interference and Noise Ratios (SINRs). Although static frequency reuseschemes greatly simplify the design of cellular systems, theyincur loss in ef
ﬁciency because parts of the spectrum in some
cells may remain unused while, at the same time, other cellsmaybe restricting the rates of their mobilestations or evendenying admission to new users. Moreover, the handover process is more complicated for mobile stations sincecommunication in more than one frequencies is required.
D.Interoperability and coexistence.
In order for the standard to be able to support either legacy base and mobile stations or other technologies (e.g.LTE), the concept of the time zone, an integer number (greater than 0) of consecutive subframes, is introduced.Interoperability among IEEE 802.16 standards: The802.16m Network Reference Model permits interoperabilityof IEEE 802.16m Layer 1 and Layer 2 with legacy 802.16standards. The motivation for ensuring interoperabilitycomes from the fact that WiMAX networks have already been deployed, and it is more realistic to requireinteroperability instead of an update of the entire network.Another advantage is that each 802.16 standard providesspeci
ﬁc functionalities in a WiMAX network. The goal in
802.16m is to enable coexistence of all these functionalities
Schedular 1.ResourceMapping2. MIMOEncoder
Encoder Encoder Encoder OFDMSymbolConstr--uction
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010127http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500