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A Survey of Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16m Standard

A Survey of Mobile WiMAX IEEE 802.16m Standard

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Published by ijcsis
IEEE 802.16m amends the IEEE 802.16 Wireless MAN-OFDMA specification to provide an advanced air interface for operation in licenced bands. It will meet the cellular layer requirements of IMT-Advanced next generation mobile networks. It will be designed to provide significantly improved performance compared to other high rate broadband cellular network systems. For the next generation mobile networks, it is important to consider increasing peak, sustained data reates, corresponding spectral efficiencies, system capacity and cell coverage as well as decreasing latency and providing QoS while carefully considering overall system complexity. In this paper we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art mobile WiMAX technology and its development. We focus our discussion on Physical Layer, MAC Layer, Schedular,QoS provisioning and mobile WiMAX specification.
IEEE 802.16m amends the IEEE 802.16 Wireless MAN-OFDMA specification to provide an advanced air interface for operation in licenced bands. It will meet the cellular layer requirements of IMT-Advanced next generation mobile networks. It will be designed to provide significantly improved performance compared to other high rate broadband cellular network systems. For the next generation mobile networks, it is important to consider increasing peak, sustained data reates, corresponding spectral efficiencies, system capacity and cell coverage as well as decreasing latency and providing QoS while carefully considering overall system complexity. In this paper we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art mobile WiMAX technology and its development. We focus our discussion on Physical Layer, MAC Layer, Schedular,QoS provisioning and mobile WiMAX specification.

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02/14/2013

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A Survey of Mobile WiMAXIEEE 802.16mStandard.
Mr. Jha RakeshDeptt. Of E & T.C.SVNITSurat, IndiaJharakesh.45@gmail.comMr. Wankhede Vishal A.Deptt. Of E & T.C.SVNITSurat, Indiawankhedeva@gmail.comProf. Dr. Upena DalalDeptt. Of E & T.C.SVNITSurat, Indiaupena_dalal@yahoo.com
 Abstract
IEEE 802.16m amends the IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN-OFDMA specification to provide an advanced airinterface for operation in licenced bands. It will meet thecellular layer requirements of IMT-Advanced next generationmobile networks. It will be designed to provide significantlyimproved performance compared to other high ratebroadband cellular network systems. For the next generationmobile networks, it is important to consider increasing peak,sustained datareates, corresponding spectral efficiencies,system capacity and cell coverage as well as decreasing latencyand providing QoS while carefully considering overall systemcomplexity.In this paperwe provide an overview of the state-of-the-art mobile WiMAXtechnology and its development. Wefocus our discussion on Physical Layer, MAC Layer,Schedular,QoS provisioning and mobile WiMAX specification.
 Keywords-Mobile WiMAX; Physical Layer; MAC Layer;Schedular; Scalable OFDM.
I.INTRODUCTIONIEEE 802.16,a solution to broadband wirelessaccess (BWA) commonly known as WorldwideInteroperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), is a recentwireless broadband standard that has promised high bandwidth over long-range transmission. The standardspecifies the air interface, including the medium accesscontrol (MAC) and physical (PHY) layers, of BWA. The keydevelopment in the PHY layer includes orthogonalfrequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), in which multipleaccess is achieved by assigning a subset of subcarriers toeach individual user[1]. This resembles code-divisionmultiple access (CDMA) spread spectrum in that it can provide different quality of service (QoS) for each user; usersachieve different data rates by assigning different codespreading factors ordifferent numbers of spreading codes. Inan OFDM system, the data is divided into multiple parallelsubstreams at a reduced data rate, and each is modulated andtransmitted on a separate orthogonal subcarrier. Thisincreases symbol duration and improves system robustness.OFDM is achieved by providing multiplexing on user’s datastreams on both uplink and downlink transmissions.Lack of mobility support seems to be one of the major hindrances to its deployment compared to other standardssuch as IEEE 802.11 WLAN, since mobility support iswidely considered as one of the key features in wirelessnetworks. It is natural that the new IEEE 802.16e releasedearlier this year has added mobility support. This is generallyreferred to as mobile WiMAX[1].Mobile WiMAX adds significant enhancements:• It improves NLOS coverage by utilizing advancedantenna diversity schemes and hybrid automatic repeatrequest (HARQ).• It adopts dense subchannelization, thus increasingsystem gain and improving indoor penetration.• It uses adaptive antenna system (AAS) and multipleinput multiple output (MIMO) technologies to improvecoverage[2].• It introduces a downlink subchannelization scheme,enabling better coverage and capacity trade-off[3-4].This paperprovides an overview of MobileWiMAX standardsand highlights potential problems arisingfrom applications. Our main focuses are on the PHY layer,MAC layer specifications ofmobile WiMAX. We give anoverview of the MAC specification in the IEEE 802.16j andIEEE802.16mstandards, specifically focusing the discussionon scheduling mechanisms and QoS provisioning. Wereview the new features in mobile WiMAX, includingmobility support, handoff, and multicast services. We discusstechnical challenges in mobile WiMAX deployment. Wethen conclude the paper.II.PHYSICALLAYEROFIEEE802.16
M
.This section contains an overview of some PhysicalLayer enhancements that are currently being considered for inclusion in future systems. Because the development of the802.16m standard is still in a relatively early stage, the focusis on presenting the concepts and the principles on which the proposed enhancements will be based, rather than on providing speci
fic implementation details. Although the
exact degree of sophistication of the new additions to thestandard cannot be safely predicted, it is expected that theadditions will make some use of the concepts described below.
 A.Flexibility enhancements to support heterogeneoususersin IEEE 802.16m:
Because the goal of future wireless systems is to cater toneeds of different users, efficient and flexible designs are
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010125http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
needed. For some users (such as streaming low-rateapplications) link reliability may be more important thanhigh data rates, whereas others may be interested inachieving the maximum data rate even if a retransmission,and, therefore, additional delay may be required[4-6].Moreover, the co-existence of different users should beachieved with relatively low control overhead. For thesereasons, the frame format, the subcarrier mapping schemesand the pilot structure are being modi
fied for 802.16m with
respect to 802.16e. Each 802.16e frame consists of adownlink (DL) and an uplink (UL) part separated in time byan OFDMA symbol and is of variable size[3,7]. The(downlink oruplink) frame begins by control informationthat all users employ to synchronize and to determine if andwhen they should receive or transmit in the given frame.Control information is followed by data transmission by the base station (in the downlink subframe) or the mobilestations (in the uplink subframe). For each mobile station,transmission or reception happens in blocks that areconstructed from basic units called slots. Each slot can bethought of as a two-dimensional block, one dimension beingthetime, the other dimension being the frequency. Ingeneral, a slot extends over one subchannel in the frequencydirection and over 1 to 3 OFDMA symbols in the timedirection, depending on the permutation scheme. Thesubchannels are groups of OFDMA subcarriers. The number of subcarriers per subchannel and the distribution of thesubcarriers that make up a subchannel in the OFDMAsymbol are determined based on the permutation scheme. Asexplained in more detail below, the subcarriers of a givensubchannel arenot always consecutive in frequency.Downlink and uplink subframes can be divided into differentzones where different permutation schemes are used[9-10].In the Partial Usage of Subchannels (PUSC) zone that ismandatory, the priority is to improve diversity and to spreadout the effect of inter-cell interference. Each slot extendsover 2 OFDMA symbols, and a subchannel consists of 24data subcarriers that are distributed over the entire signal bandwidth (OFDMA symbol). Thus, each subchannel hasapproximately the same channel quality in terms of thechannel gain and the inter-cell interference. To reduce theeffect of the inter-cell interference, when PUSC is used, theavailable subchannels are distributed among base stations sothat adjacent base stationsnot use the same subchannels.When the inter-cell interference is not signi
ficant, as in the
case of mobile stations located closely to a base station, itmaybe advantageous to employ Full Usage of Subchannels(FUSC). The goal of the FUSC permutation scheme issimilar to PUSC, i.e, to improve diversity and to spread outthe effect of inter-cell interference. However, as the namesuggests, in the FUSC zone all subchannels are used by a base station. For this reason, the design of the pilot patternfor the FUSC zone is slightlymore ef 
ficient compared to
PUSC. A subchannel in the FUSC permutation zone consistsof 48 data subcarriers and the slot only comprises oneOFDMA symbol.
 B.Extending use of MIMO transmission
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) communicationis already a reality in wireless systems. It will be supported by the IEEE 802.11n amendment to the 802.11 WLANstandards that is expected to be rati
fied in the near future.
Similarly, 802.16e includes support for MIMO downlink anduplink transmission. As MIMO technologymatures andimplementation issues are being resolved, it is expected thatMIMO will be widely used for wireless communication.Current Mobile WiMAX pro
files include support for up to 2
transmit antennas even though the IEEE 802.16e standarddoes not restrict the number of antennas, and allows up to 4spatial streams. The current aim for Next GenerationWiMAX systems is to support at least up to 8 transmitantennas at the base station, 4 streams and Space-TimeCoding[2]. Moreover, although some other MIMO featuresof 802.16e, such as closed-loop MIMO, have not appeared inMobile WiMAX pro
files yet, it is expected that they will be
included in new 802.16m-based systems. More speci
fically,
it has been already decided to support closed-loop MIMOusing Channel Quality Information, Precoding Matrix Indexand rank feedback in future systems.In 802.11 systems, as well as in the 802.16e standard,MIMO transmission is used to increase the data rate of thecommunication between a given transmitter-receiver pair and/or improve the reliability of the link. It is expected that802.16m and future 3GPP systems will extend MIMOsupport to Multi-user (MU-) MIMO. More speci
fically, use
of multiple antennas can improve the achievable rates of usersin a network with given frequency resources. Ininformation theoretic terms, the capacity region of the uplink and the downlink increases, in general, when MIMOtransmission is employed[2]. In many cases, a large portionof this capacity increase can be achieved using relativelysimple linear schemes (transmit beamforming at thedownlink and linear equalizers at the uplink). Therefore, theachievable rates can be increased without the need for sophisticated channel coding. If larger complexity can beafforded, even higher gains can be attained using successivedecoding at the uplink and Dirty Paper Coding schemes atthe downlink. An overview of the projected MIMOarchitecture for the downlink of 802.16m systems is given inthe System Description Document (SDD), and is repeated inFig. 1for convenience.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010126http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Figure1.MIMO architecture for the downlink of 802.16m systems.
WiMAX and 3GPP networks employing MU-MIMO will need to calculate which users should transmitand receive during each frame, as well as the bestachievable rate that corresponds to each user based on their QoS requirements, the number of users in each cell and their  position. Although the information-theoretic capacity has been characterized, this is not an easy task, even for narrowband systems,and it is even more challenging whenall subcarriers of the OFDMA system are considered.Therefore, ef 
ficient algorithms will be needed at the base
station for user selection that will also determine the beamforming
filters for the downlink, the receiver fil
ters for the uplink and the required power allocation at the basestation and each mobile station.
T
ABLE
I.MOSTIMPORTANTFEATURESANDSYSTEMREQUIREMENTSOFMOBILEWIMAXSTANDARDS
RequirementIEEE 802.16eIEEE802.16m
Aggregate Data Rate63 Mbps100Mbps for mobilestations, 1 Gbps for fixedOperating RadioFrequency2.3 GHz, 2.5-2.7GHz, 3.5 GHz< 6 GHzDuplexing SchemesTDD and FDDTDD and FDDMIMO supportup to 4 streams, nolimit on antennas4 or 8 streams, no limiton antennasCoverage10km3 km, 5-30 km and 30-100 kmHandover Inter-frequencyInterruption Time35-50 msdepending on scenarioHandover Intra-frequencyInterruption Time Not Specified30 msHandover between802.16 standards(for correspondingmobile station)From 802.16eserving BS to802.16e target BS100 msHandover with other technologies Not SpecifiedFrom legacy serving BSto legacy target BSFrom 802.16m servingBS to legacy target BSFrom legacy serving BSto 802.16m target BSFrom 802.16m servingBS to 802.16mtargetBSMobility SpeedVehicular: 120 km/hIEEE 802.11, 3GPP2,GSM/EDGE, (E-)UTRA (LTE TDD)Using IEEE 802.21Media IndependentHandover (MIH)Position accuracy Not SpecifiedIndoor: 10 km/hBasic Coverage Urban:120 km/hHigh Speed: 350 km/hLocation DeterminationLatency: 30 s
C.Resource allocation and multi-cell MIMO
In cellular networks careful frequency planning isrequired in order to achieve communication with smalloutage probability and, at the same time, minimizeinterference among users of neighboring cells. Users near thecell edges are particularly vulnerable, because they receivesignals of comparable strength from more than one basestations[2]. For this reason, different parts of the frequencyspectrum are typically assigned to neighboring cells. Theassignment in current systems is static and can only bechanged by manual re-con
figuration of the system. Changes
to the frequency allocation can only be performed periodically and careful cell planning is required in order notto affect other parts of the system. Frequencies are reused bycells that are sufficiently far away so that the interferencecaused by transmissions on the same frequencies is smallenough to guarantee satisfactory Signal-to-Interference and Noise Ratios (SINRs). Although static frequency reuseschemes greatly simplify the design of cellular systems, theyincur loss in ef 
ficiency because parts of the spectrum in some
cells may remain unused while, at the same time, other cellsmaybe restricting the rates of their mobilestations or evendenying admission to new users. Moreover, the handover  process is more complicated for mobile stations sincecommunication in more than one frequencies is required.
 D.Interoperability and coexistence.
In order for the standard to be able to support either legacy base and mobile stations or other technologies (e.g.LTE), the concept of the time zone, an integer number (greater than 0) of consecutive subframes, is introduced.Interoperability among IEEE 802.16 standards[11]: The802.16m Network Reference Model permits interoperabilityof IEEE 802.16m Layer 1 and Layer 2 with legacy 802.16standards. The motivation for ensuring interoperabilitycomes from the fact that WiMAX networks have already been deployed, and it is more realistic to requireinteroperability instead of an update of the entire network.Another advantage is that each 802.16 standard providesspeci
fic functionalities in a WiMAX network. The goal in
802.16m is to enable coexistence of all these functionalities
Schedular 1.ResourceMapping2. MIMOEncoder 
3.BeamPrecoder
Encoder Encoder Encoder OFDMSymbolConstr--uction
IFFTIFFTFeedbackCSIACK/NAKMode/LinkPrecodingVector/ Matrix
User1:data
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 1, April 2010127http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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