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Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1

# Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1

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Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1
Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1

Published by: Oxford University Press Children and Schools on Jun 30, 2010

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F P1
15

use complex numbers to solve equations such as3
x
2

-
2
x

+
1
=
0

add, subtract, multiply and divide complex numbers

represent complex numbers geometrically

solve polynomial equations of up to degree 4, such as
x
4

+
3
x
3

-
12
x

-
16
=
0
Complex numbers
This chapter will show you how to:
Refer to
1.1, 1.2
Before you start
You should know how to:
1

e.g. Solve 2
x
2

+

x

-
10
=
02
x
2

+

x

-
10
=
(2
x

+
5)(
x

-
2)Since 2
x
2

+

x

-
10
=
0
,
(2
x

+
5)(
x

-
2)
=
0hence
x

=

-
52
, 2
2

Solve a pair of simultaneous equations.
e.g. Solve the simultaneous equations
2

+
2
y
2

=
6,
x

-

y

=
3
x
2

+
2
y
2

=
6 and
x

=

y

+
3

so (3
+

y
)
2

+
2
y
2

-
6
=
0

3
y
2

+
6
y

+
3
=
03(
y

+
1)
2

=
0Hence
y

=

-
1,
x

=
2
3

Solve a polynomial equation.
e.g. Solve the equation
x
3

-
2
x
2

-

x

+
2
=
0given that
x

=
2 is one of its roots.
)
x x x  x  x  x  x
+++
22222201
32322
x
3

-
2
x
2

-

x

+
2
=
0 so (
x

-
2)(
x

+
1)(
x

-
1)
=
0Hence
x

=
2 or
x

=

±
1See
C1
for revision.See

C1
for revision.See
C1
for revision.See

C1
for revision.
Check in:
1

Solve
a
x
2

+

x

-
12
=
0
b
9
x
2

-
6
x

=
0
c
4
x
2

-
4
x

+
1
=
0
2

Solve each pair of simultaneous equations.
a
2
x
2

+

y
2

=
9

x

+

y

=
3
b
2
x
2

+
2
y
2

=
1

4
xy

=
1
c
x
4

-

y
4

=
15

x
2

-

y
2

=
3
3

Solve the equation3
x
3

-
5
x
2

-
4
x

+
4
=
0given that
x

=

-
1 is one of its roots.
2

F      P      1
16
The square root of any number,
x

0, is a real number,but what is the square root of a negative number such as
-
9?
Real numbers lie on thenumber line.Real numbers lie on thenumber line.
012−12012−1−2
The imaginary number
2.1
Consider the equation
x
2
+ 9
=
0then
x
2

=

-
9
x

=

9
=
91
×

=
91
×

=

±
3
´

1
since
ab a b
=×
since
ab a b
=×

You can write the square root of any negative number as theproduct of a real number and
1.
1 is an
imaginary number
and is denoted by the letter
i
.
So
9
=

±
3
and the solution to the equation
x
2

+
9
=
0 is
x

=

±
3
.
You can check each answer is correct by substituting it into thegiven equation.
When
x

=
3
,
x
2

+
9
=
(3
)
2

+
9
=
9
2

+
9
=

-
9
+
9
=
0 as required
x

=

±
3
are the roots of theequation
x
2

+
9
=
0
x

=

±
3
are the roots of theequation
x
2

+
9
=
0(3
)
2

=
3

´
3

=
9
2
(3
)
2

=
3

´
3

=
9
2
Use this method to checkthat
x

=

-
3
is also a root of this equation.Use this method to checkthat
x

=

-
3
is also a root of this equation.9
2

=
9
´

-
1
=

-
99
2

=
9
´

-
1
=

-
9
Find
25
,
12
and
7
.
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
=±±
2525
5
i = i
=±=±×=±
1212433
2
i i i
=±
77
i
XA MP 1

2
Complex numbers
F P1
17
Exercise 2.1
1

Express each square root in terms of the imaginary number
i
.
a
16
b

36
c
100
d

20
2

i
a
x
2

+
4
=
0
b

x
2

+
49
=
0
c
x
2

+
225
=
0
d

2
x
2

+
50
=
0
e
3
x
2

+
27
=
0
f

4
x
2

+
1
=
0
g
9
x
2

+
4
=
0
h

27
x
2

+
6
=
0
3

a
x
2

+
8
=
0
b

x
2

+
18
=
0
c
3
x
2

+
36
=
0
d

4
x
2

+
180
=
0
e
5
x
2

+
120
=
0
f

12
x
2

+
14
=
0
g
12
x
2

+
1
=
0
h

1314
2
0
x
+=
4

Solve each equation, giving answers in terms of the positive number
a
.
a
x
2

+

a
2

=
0
b

x
2

+
9
a
2

=
0
c
x
2

+

a
4

=
0
d

(
ax
)
2

+
1
=
0
5

The equation
ax
2

+
b

=
0, where
a
and
b
are positive integers,has a root
522
i
.
a
Show that
b a
=
252
b
Given that
b
< 50, find the value of
a
and the value of
b
.
6

Solve these equations.
a
x
2

+
2
=
0
b

x
4

=
16
c
1
2
x

+
9
=
0
d

225
22
1
x x
+
=

## Activity (5)

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