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Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1

Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1

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Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1
Sample chapter from Oxford A Level Mathematics for Edexcel Statistics Further Pure FP1

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Published by: Oxford University Press Children and Schools on Jun 30, 2010
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11/19/2013

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 F P1  
15
 
use complex numbers to solve equations such as3
 x
2
 
-
2
 x
 
+
1
=
0
 
add, subtract, multiply and divide complex numbers
 
represent complex numbers geometrically
 
solve polynomial equations of up to degree 4, such as
 x
4
 
+
3
 x
3
 
-
12
 x
 
-
16
=
0
Complex numbers
This chapter will show you how to:
Refer to
1.1, 1.2
Before you start
You should know how to:
1
 
Solve a quadratic equation.
e.g. Solve 2
 x 
2
 
+
 
 x 
 
-
10
=
02
 x 
2
 
+
 
 x 
 
-
10
=
(2
 x 
 
+
5)(
 x 
 
-
2)Since 2
 x 
2
 
+
 
 x 
 
-
10
=
0
,
(2
 x 
 
+
5)(
 x 
 
-
2)
=
0hence
 x 
 
=
 
-
52
, 2
2
 
Solve a pair of simultaneous equations.
e.g. Solve the simultaneous equations
2
 
+
2
 y 
2
 
=
6,
 x 
 
-
 
 y 
 
=
3 
 x 
2
 
+
2
 y 
2
 
=
6 and
 x 
 
=
 
 y 
 
+
3
 
so (3
+
 
 y 
)
2
 
+
2
 y 
2
 
-
6
=
0
 
3
 y 
2
 
+
6
 y 
 
+
3
=
03(
 y 
 
+
1)
2
 
=
0Hence
 y 
 
=
 
-
1,
 x 
 
=
2
3
 
Solve a polynomial equation.
e.g. Solve the equation
 x 
3
 
-
2
 x 
2
 
-
 
 x 
 
+
2
=
0given that 
 x 
 
=
2 is one of its roots. 
)
 x x x  x  x  x  x 
+++
22222201
32322
 x 
3
 
-
2
 x 
2
 
-
 
 x 
 
+
2
=
0 so (
 x 
 
-
2)(
 x 
 
+
1)(
 x 
 
-
1)
=
0Hence
 x 
 
=
2 or 
 x 
 
=
 
±
1See
C1
for revision.See
 
C1
for revision.See
C1
for revision.See
 
C1
for revision.
Check in:
1
 
Solve
a
 x
2
 
+
 
 x
 
-
12
=
0
b
9
 x
2
 
-
6
 x
 
=
0
c
4
 x
2
 
-
4
 x
 
+
1
=
0
2
 
Solve each pair of simultaneous equations.
a
2
 x
2
 
+
 
 y 
2
 
=
9
 
 x
 
+
 
 y 
 
=
3
b
2
 x
2
 
+
2
 y 
2
 
=
1
 
4
 xy 
 
=
1
c
 x
4
 
-
 
 y 
4
 
=
15
 
 x
2
 
-
 
 y 
2
 
=
3
3
 
Solve the equation3
 x
3
 
-
5
 x
2
 
-
4
 x
 
+
4
=
0given that
 x
 
=
 
-
1 is one of its roots.
2
 
      F      P      1
16
The square root of any number,
 x
 
0, is a real number,but what is the square root of a negative number such as
-
9?
Real numbers lie on thenumber line.Real numbers lie on thenumber line.
012−12012−1−2
The imaginary number
2.1
Consider the equation 
 x 
2
+ 9
=
0then
 x 
2
 
=
 
-
9 
 x 
 
=
 
9 
=
 91
×
 
=
 91
×
 
=
 
±
3
´
 
1
since
ab a b
=×
 since
ab a b
=×
 
You can write the square root of any negative number as theproduct of a real number and
1.
1 is an
imaginary number
and is denoted by the letter
i
.
So
9
=
 
±
3
 and the solution to the equation
 x 
2
 
+
9
=
0 is
 x 
 
=
 
±
3
.
You can check each answer is correct by substituting it into thegiven equation.
When
 x 
 
=
3
,
 x 
2
 
+
9
=
(3
)
2
 
+
9 
=
9
2
 
+
9 
=
 
-
9
+
9 
=
0 as required
 x 
 
=
 
±
3
are the roots of theequation
 x 
2
 
+
9
=
0
 x 
 
=
 
±
3
are the roots of theequation
 x 
2
 
+
9
=
0(3
)
2
 
=
3
 
´
3
 
=
9
2
(3
)
2
 
=
3
 
´
3
 
=
9
2
Use this method to checkthat 
 x 
 
=
 
-
3
is also a root of this equation.Use this method to checkthat 
 x 
 
=
 
-
3
is also a root of this equation.9
2
 
=
9
´
 
-
1
=
 
-
99
2
 
=
9
´
 
-
1
=
 
-
9
Find
25
,
12
and
7
.
••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
=±±
2525
5
i = i
=±=±×=±
1212433
2
i i i
=±
77
i
XA MP 1  
 
2
Complex numbers
 F P1  
17
Exercise 2.1
1
 
Express each square root in terms of the imaginary number
i
.
a
16 
b
 
36
c
100
d
 
20
2
 
Solve these equations, giving your answers in terms of theimaginary number
i
.Check each answer by substitution.
a
 x
2
 
+
4
=
0
b
 
 x
2
 
+
49
=
0
c
 x
2
 
+
225
=
0
d
 
2
 x
2
 
+
50
=
0
e
3
 x
2
 
+
27
=
0
f
 
4
 x
2
 
+
1
=
0
g
9
 x
2
 
+
4
=
0
h
 
27
 x
2
 
+
6
=
0
3
 
Solve these equations, giving your answers in simplified surd form.
a
 x
2
 
+
8
=
0
b
 
 x
2
 
+
18
=
0
c
3
 x
2
 
+
36
=
0
d
 
4
 x
2
 
+
180
=
0
e
5
 x
2
 
+
120
=
0
f
 
12
 x
2
 
+
14
=
0
g
12
 x
2
 
+
1
=
0
h
 
1314
2
0
 x
+=
4
 
Solve each equation, giving answers in terms of the positive number
a
.
a
 x
2
 
+
 
a
2
 
=
0
b
 
 x
2
 
+
9
a
2
 
=
0
c
 x
2
 
+
 
a
4
 
=
0
d
 
(
ax
)
2
 
+
1
=
0
5
 
The equation
ax
2
 
+
b
 
=
0, where
a
and
b
are positive integers,has a root
522
i
.
a
Show that
b a
=
252
b
Given that
b
< 50, find the value of 
a
and the value of 
b
.
6
 
Solve these equations.
a
 x
2
 
+
 2 
=
0
b
 
 x
4
 
=
16
c
1
2
 x
 
+
9
=
0
d
 
225
22
1
 x x
+
=

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