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Uranium jawad(FROM NOTHING TO MEGATONS)

Uranium jawad(FROM NOTHING TO MEGATONS)

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Published by: jawad on Jun 30, 2010
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04/27/2013

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FROM NOTHING TO MEGATONS
URANIUM
A silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table withatomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol
U.
The uranium nucleus binds between141 and 146 neutrons, establishing six isotopes, the most common of which are U-238 (146neutrons) and U-235 (143 neutrons). All isotopes are unstable and uranium is weaklyradioactive. Uranium has the second highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements,lighter only than plutonium-244. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, but not asdense as gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations in soil, rock and water, andis commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.U-235 is fissile,fissile is a material that can sustain chain reaction.
 THINGS TO KNOW
 
INTERESTING FACTS
Uranium is 40 times more naturallyabundant than silver 
An artificial fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from naturalthorium and is also important innuclear technology
In nature, uranium is found asuranium-238 (99.284%), uranium-235 (0.711%).
A gallon of milk weighs about 8 lbs.A chunk of uranium metal the sizeof a gallon milk jug weighs over 150lbs
Finely divided uranium burns readilyin air at 150 to 175 degrees Celsius(300 to 350 degrees Fahrenheit).
Uranium boils at about 3,818degrees Celsius (about 6,904 degreesFahrenheit)
ORIGIN OF URANIUM
Cosmo chemists have been concerned not only with patterns and secular trends of abundanceof the elements in galaxies but also with the origins of abundance anomalies in particular starsand with theories on the synthesis of different nuclei to account for these observations.According to the theories developed, the Earth's uranium was produced in one or moresupernovae (An explosive brightening of a star in which the energy radiated by it increases bya factor of ten billion, A supernova explosion occurs when a star has burned up all its availablenuclear fuel and the core collapses catastrophically)
 
Sudden collapse in the centre of a massive star triggers the explosive ejection of much of thestar into space, together with a flood of neutrons. Remnants of hundreds of supernovae have been found, and world witnessed one in the Magellanic Clouds in 1987.we can calculate the abundances of U-235 and U-238 at the time the Earth was formed.Knowing further that the production ratio of U-235 to U-238 in a supernova is about 1.65, wecan calculate that if all of the uranium now in the solar system were made in a singlesupernova, this event must have occurred some 6.5 billion years ago.The present-day abundance of uranium in the 'depleted' mantle exposed on the ocean floor isabout 0.004 ppm. The continental crust, on the other hand, is relatively enriched in uranium atsome 1.4 ppm.
THINGS TO KNOW INTERESTING FACTS
Since 2.5 billion years ago oredeposits of uranium have beenformed primarily on earth wherereduction of uranium-bearing fluidswas achieved, for example by bacteria or through contact withgraphitic shales
The half-life of uranium-238 is about4.47 billion years and that of uranium-235 is 704 million years,making them useful in dating the ageof the Earth
Cosmologists believed that multiplesupernovae from over 6 billion toabout 200 million years ago wereresponsible of today’s uranium onearth.
Theory that much of the uranium inthe primordial planet sunk to thecore and has formed a core there,some 8 km across, which has beenfissioning ever since,called as
Georeactor theory
HISTORY OF URANIUM
Uranium was found in 1789 by the German chemist
Martin Heinrich
in his laboratory inBerlin. While he was working in his experimental laboratory in Berlin in 1789, Klaproth wasable to precipitate a yellow compound (likely sodium diuranate) by dissolving pitchblende innitric acid and neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide.In 1841,
Eugene-Melchior Peligot
, Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (Central School of Arts and Manufactures) in Paris, isolated thefirst sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloride with potassium
Antoine Henri Becquerel
discovered radioactivity by using uranium in 1896.Becquerel madethe discovery in Paris by leaving a sample of a uranium salt, K 
2
UO
2
(SO
4
)
2
, on top of anunexposed photographic plate in a drawer and noting that the plate had become 'fogged. Hedetermined that a form of invisible light or rays emitted by uranium had exposed the plate.
 
A team led by
Enrico Fermi
in 1934 observed that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces the emission of beta rays. The experiments leading to the discovery of uranium'sability to fission into lighter elements and release binding energy were conducted by
OttoHahn
and
Fritz Strassmann
in
Hahn's
laboratory in Berlin.On 2 December 1942, as part of the
Manhattan Project
, another team led by Enrico Fermiwas able to initiate the first artificial self-sustained nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1.Working in a lab below the stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, the team createdthe conditions needed for such a reaction by piling together 400 tons (360 tonnes) of graphite,58 tons of uranium oxide, and six tons of uranium metal.
 
Martin Heinrich Klaproth Enrico and its team
THINGS TO KNOW INTERESTING FACTS
Enrico was awarded the Nobel Prizein Physics in 1938 for his work oninduced radioactivity
.
First time world nuclear fusin wasused by
Lise Meitner
and her nephew, physicist
Otto RobertFrisch
,as they published the physicalexplanation in February 1939 andnamed the process
'nuclear fission
'
Klaproth
mistakenly assumed theyellow substance was the oxide of a yet-undiscovered element andheated it with charcoal to obtain a black powder.
The fission products were at firstmistaken for new elements of atomic numbers 93 and 94.
URANIUM DEPSOITS

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