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[11] ABB Review 3_2008

[11] ABB Review 3_2008

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Published by Cuong Nguyen

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Published by: Cuong Nguyen on Jun 30, 2010
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3 / 2008
 The corporate technical journalof the ABB Groupwww.abb.com/abbreview
 ABB
Review
Pioneeringspirits
 A revolution in high dc currentmeasurement
page 6
 Team-mates: MultiMove functionality heraldsa new era in robot applications
page 26
Best innovations 2004
page 43
a
 
Powerelectronics
IGBT: a tiny chip with a huge impact
page 19
Drives: more performance using less energy
page 30
Wind converters: making electricity from air
page 56
 
 The power electronics revolution,which has over the past decadeswept across the power and auto-mation sectors, has opened upunprecedented possibilities in termsof controlling the way electricalenergy is transported and used.Electrical energy can now be trans-mitted more efficiently (the coverillustration shows the IGBT-poweredvalves of an HVDC Light
®
conver-ter). Variable-speed drives permitmotors to be controlled in ways thatpreviously were not thought possi-ble, while at the same time drasti-cally reducing the energy bills of theindustries that use them.
 
 3 ABB Review 3/2008
Editorial
 We have grown used to the thought that millions of transis-tors enable the performance of our laptops and consumerelectronics. But would you have believed that someday ourelectrical power would flow through billions of transistors? Whereas early rectifier and inverter stations had a handfulof diodes or thyristors, a modern HVDC Light
®
station may have 100 billion transistors, when the number of IGBTmodules, the chips within those modules and the micro-structures on those chips are considered. The sheer scaleof integration required leads to high demands on reliabili-ty, requirements that ABB’s advanced design and manufac-turing teams are well-equipped to meet. When ABB developed its first silicon diode with 100 A and600 V in the early 1960s, nobody in their wildest dreamscould imagine that such complexity, sophistication andfine-tuned functionality could ever be reached. Nor couldanyone predict that electrical current, en route from thepower plant to the end customer, would flow through con-trolled silicon junctions, managing several hundred MW of power today, 10,000 times that just half a century ago.No wonder power semiconductors have taken the leadingrole in almost all electrical applications: Drives to efficient-ly operate motors are available from 10 W to several hun-dred MW. Electrical energy up to 6 GW can now be trans-mitted through HVDC lines at almost 1,000 kV. Trains, ele- vators and cranes run smoothly with power electronics.The connection of renewable energy sources, such as windturbines, to the electric grid is enabled by converters. Evenradar systems depend on power semiconductors to secure-ly operate air traffic.In all these achievements, ABB has played a leading role.
ABB Review 
is proud to present a collection of applica-tions, as well as the technology itself, that makes all thispossible. Not only does the technology add comfort andproductivity when applied, it also helps to save energy. ABB’s product and system portfolio, aimed at increasingenergy efficiency, is very broad and almost all offeringsdepend on the use of power semiconductors. As individuals, we see the enormous progress of electroniccomponents in our computers, digital media players, digitalcameras, etc. A similar but much less visible evolution hasalso occurred in electrical power – but this is one that weeasily take for granted, not recognizing most of the hugeprogress. This edition of 
ABB Review 
will take you behindthe scenes, revealing the infrastructure that has become anatural part of our lives.Enjoy your reading.Peter TerwieschChief Technology Officer ABB Ltd.
 The unseen evolution

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