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Unit - 1.PrintOUT Docx

Unit - 1.PrintOUT Docx

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theory of mettal cutting for mechanical engineers,mohrs circle
Up gradation of cemented carbides and their applications
Cutting temperature – causes, effects and influencing parameters
theory of mettal cutting for mechanical engineers,mohrs circle
Up gradation of cemented carbides and their applications
Cutting temperature – causes, effects and influencing parameters

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Published by: vlucknow on Jul 01, 2010
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Unit ± 1Theory of Metal Cutting
Metal cutting process is basically shearing of work material and thesurface is removed in the form of chipMetal cutting commonly called machining, produces a desired shape,size and finish on a rough block of work piece material with the helpof a wedge shaped tool that is constrained to move relative to thework piece in such a way that a layer of metal is removed in theform of a chip.
Chip formation in conventional machining process
lements of metal cutting
utting conditions are characterized mainly by such elements as,
cutting speed, Feed, Depth of cut, undeformed chip cross-section,
ycle time and machining time.
utting speed is the distance traveled by the work surface per unittime in reference to the cutting edge of the tool.
utting speed, v =
DN / 1000 m/minWhere D is the work piece diameter in mm and N is work piecespeed in RPMFeed (s) is the movement of the tool cutting edge per revolution of the work: in turning it is expressed in mm/revolution.Depth of cut (t) is measured in a direction perpendicular to the work axis and in straight turning in one pass, it is found from the relation t= (D ± d) / 2 mm, where D is original diameter of the work piece andd is the diameter of machined work piece in mm.The time required to machine one work piece is called the cycle time(T
), it includes machining time (T
), handling time (T
) whichincludes loading, un loading of work piece etc., servicing time (T
),which includes time spent on changing blunt tools, chip removal,machine lubrication etc., and (T
) time for rest and personal needs.The standard time per piece (T
) is determined by T
= T
+ T
+ T
 + T
min. Knowing the standard time per piece, the rate of  production can be calculated.
eometry of Single Point Cutting Tool (Tool Signature)
 Metal cutting by chip formation occurs when a work piece movesrelative to a cutting edge, which is positioned to penetrate its surface.
The principle of tool geometry is to provide a sharp cutting edge thatis strongly supported.The word tool geometry is basically referred to some specific anglesor slope of the salient faces and edges of the tools at their cutting point.Rake angle and clearance angle are the most significant for all thecutting tools.
Rake and Clearance angles of cutting tools
Rake angle () is defined as the angle of inclination of rake surfacefrom reference plane and
learance angle () is defined as the angleof inclination of clearance or flank surface from the finished surface.Rake angle is provided for ease of chip flow and overall machining.Rake angle may be positive or negative or even zeroRelative advantages of such rake angles are:
Positive rake ± helps reduce cutting force and thus cutting power requirement.
Negative rake ± to increase edge-strength and life of the tool
Zero rake ± to simplify design and manufacture of the formtools.

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