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Physics

Physics

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Published by: kumarabhijit on Jul 02, 2010
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11/21/2012

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Physics Formulary
By ir. J.C.A. Wevers
 
c
1995, 2009 J.C.A. Wevers Version: December 16, 2009Dear reader,Thisdocumentcontainsa108pageL
A
TEXfilewhichcontainsalotequationsinphysics. Itis writtenatadvancedundergraduate/postgraduatelevel. It is intendedto be a short referencefor anyonewho works with physics andoften needs to look up equations.This, and a Dutch version of this file, can be obtained from the author, Johan Wevers(
johanw@xs4all.nl
).It can also be obtained on the WWW. See
http://www.xs4all.nl/˜johanw/index.html
, wherealso a Postscript version is available.If you find any errors or have any comments, please let me know. I am always open for suggestions andpossible corrections to the physics formulary.The Physics Formulary is made with teTEX and L
A
TEX version 2.09. It can be possible that your L
A
TEX versionhas problems compiling the file. The most probable source of problems would be the use of large beziercurvesand/or emTEX specials in pictures. If you preferthe notation in which vectors are typefacedin boldface,uncomment the redefinition of the
\
vec
command in the TEX file and recompile the file.This work is licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Netherlands License. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/nl/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California 94105, USA.Johan Wevers
 
Contents
Contents IPhysical Constants 11 Mechanics 2
1.1 Point-kinetics in a xed coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.1 Denitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 Polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Relative motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Point-dynamics in a fixed coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3.1 Force, (angular)momentumand energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3.2 Conservative force elds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3.3 Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3.4 Orbital equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3.5 The virial theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.4 Point dynamics in a moving coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.4.1 Apparent forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.4.2 Tensor notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.5 Dynamics of masspoint collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.5.1 The centre of mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.5.2 Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.6 Dynamics of rigid bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.6.1 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.6.2 Principal axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.6.3 Time dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.7 Variational Calculus, Hamilton and Lagrange mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.7.1 Variational Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.7.2 Hamilton mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.7.3 Motion around an equilibrium, linearization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.7.4 Phase space, Liouvilles equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.7.5 Generating functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Electricity & Magnetism 9
2.1 The Maxwell equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.2 Force and potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.3 Gauge transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.4 Energy of the electromagnetic eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5 Electromagnetic waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5.1 Electromagnetic waves in vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.5.2 Electromagnetic waves in matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.6 Multipoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.7 Electric currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.8 Depolarizing eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.9 Mixtures of materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

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