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Regulation of Alternators

Regulation of Alternators

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Published by: rakeshkr07 on Jul 03, 2010
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12/08/2010

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Prepared by Francis M. Fernandez, Sr. Lecturer, College of Engineering Trivandrum
1
Regulation of Alternators
Phasor diagram of an alternator atlagging power factor is as follows.
VIIR 
a
IX
L
IX
a
EE
0
IX
s
 Regulation is found by the followingexpression% regn = 100
0
×
 E 
 where
is the terminal voltage and
 E 
0
is theinduced voltage.
 E 
0
is estimated by one of the following methods.
EMF method
(Synchronous impedance method)Tests:Conduct tests to findOCC (upto 125% of rated voltage)SCC (for rated current)Armature resistance (per phase)
VField current
   V  o   l   t  a  g  e   S   C    C  u  r  r  e  n   t
I
SC
  O  C  C
  S  C  C
 
= rated phase voltage
 I 
sc
 
= short circuit current corresponding tothe field current producing the ratedvoltageSynchronous impedance per phase,
scs
 I  Z 
=
 
22
ass
 R Z  X 
=
 For any load current
 I 
and phase angle
Φ
,find E
0
as the vector sum of 
V, IR
a
and
 IX 
s
 
For lagging power factor
IX
s
VIIR 
a
E
0
 
220
)sin()cos(
sa
 IX  IR E 
+Φ++Φ=
 
For unity power factor
IX
s
VIR 
a
E
0
I
 
220
)()(
sa
 IX  IR E 
++=
 
For leading power factor
VsinVIR 
a
E
0
IX
s
I
 
220
)sin()cos(
sa
 IX  IR E 
Φ++Φ=
 
 
Prepared by Francis M. Fernandez, Sr. Lecturer, College of Engineering Trivandrum
2
MMF method
(Ampere turns method)Tests:Conduct tests to findOCC (upto 125% of rated voltage)SCC (for rated current)
f1
f2 
Field current
   V  o   l   t  a  g  e
 O C C
  S  C  C
90+
 Steps:1.
 
By suitable tests plot OCC and SCC2.
 
From the OCC find the field current
 I 
 f1
to produce rated voltage,
.3.
 
From SCC find the magnitude of fieldcurrent
 I 
 f2
to produce the requiredarmature current.4.
 
Draw
 I 
 f2
at angle (90+
Φ
) from
 I 
 f1
, where
Φ
is the phase angle of current fromvoltage. If current is leading, take theangle of 
 I 
 f2
as (90-
Φ
).5.
 
Find the resultant field current,
 I 
 f 
andmark its magnitude on the field currentaxis.6.
 
From OCC. find the voltagecorresponding to
 I 
 f 
 ,
which will be
 E 
0
.
ZPF method
(Potier method)Tests:Conduct tests to findOCC (upto 125% of rated voltage)SCC (for rated current)ZPF (for rated current and rated voltage)Armature Resistance (if required)Steps:1.
 
By suitable tests plot OCC and SCC2.
 
Draw tangent to OCC (air gap line)3.
 
Conduct ZPF test at full load for ratedvoltage and fix the point B.4.
 
Draw the line BH with length equal tofield current required to produce full loadcurrent at short circuit.5.
 
Draw HD parallel to the air gap line so asto touch the OCC.6.
 
Draw DE parallel to voltage axis. Now,DE represents voltage drop
 IX 
 L
and BErepresents the field current required toovercome the effect of armature reaction.
Triangle BDE is called Potier triangle and X 
 L
is the Potier reactance
7.
 
Find E from
,
 IX 
 L
and
Φ
. Consider 
 R
a
 also if required. The expression to use is
22
)sin()cos(
 La
 IX  IR E 
+Φ++Φ=
 8.
 
Find field current corresponding to
 E.
 9.
 
Draw FG with magnitude equal to BE atangle (90+
Ψ
) from field current axis,where
Ψ
is the phase angle of currentfrom voltage vector 
 E 
(internal phaseangle).10.
 
The resultant field current is given byOG. Mark this length on field currentaxis.11.
 
From OCC find the corresponding
 E 
0
.
Field current
   V  o   l   t  a  g  e
ODBEHA
 O C C
  Z  P  F
     A     i    r    g     a    p       l     i    n   e
FG90+

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