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Chocolate

Chocolate

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Published by Ajda Podgoršek

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Ajda Podgoršek on Jul 03, 2010
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09/17/2010

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T
hee is a wo fo ou: “chocohoic,”whe ou
need 
chocoate. nothigese wi o. just thikig about hotfuge izzig oe ice ceam aisesou siits. you cae a tuffe, a Kit-Kat, amug of eet hot cocoa. Few, if a, othefoos eoke such assio.So what is uique about chocoate? recetscietific fiigs ae oiig ew eiecethat chocoate ma be heathie tha is usuaassume.
so any goodchecal …
Oe of the easos chocoate is uique isthe temeatue at which it mets: betwee94 °F a 97 °F. A mose of chocoate siesacoss ou togue a iquefies ito a efectue of taste sesatio. The huma bo, at98.6 °F is ust aboe the chocoate’s metigtemeatue. “Mets i ou mouth”? defi-ite tue.Chocoate cotais moe tha 300chemicas. Caffeie, a stimuat, is the mostwe kow, but it is eset o i smaamouts. Aothe stimuat is theobomie,fou i amouts sight highe tha caffeie.The two moecues ae ietica excet fo oemeth gou (CH
3
), but it is ot et cea howthe act togethe i chocoate.Aothe chemica kow to make usha whe we eat chocoate is aa-amie, so ame because it meas“biss” i Saskit. not o is it es-et i chocoate, but it is aso ouceb the bai a bocks out ai aeessio.But whe aaamie is ouceb the bai, it is boke owquick, so its effects o’t ast.Emmauee iTomaso, a assistatbioogist at MassachusettsGeea Hosita,Bosto, Mass., a daieepiomei, ofesso of ha-macoog at theUiesit ofCaifoia-Iie,hae show thatchemicas ichocoate ma ihibitthis atua beakowof aaamie. Thismeas that wheou eat choco-ate, aaamiemoecues fomchocoate sta ithe bo oge.
    M    I    K    E    C    I    E    S    I    E    l    S    K    I    A    l    l    S    T    r    U    C    U    r    E    S   :    C    E    S    A    r    C    A    M    I    n    E    r    O
Chematter
, APRIL 2009
13
Caffeine
 
OONNNCH
3
CH
3
H
3
CN
Theobromine
 
OONNHNCH
3
CH
3
N
Anandamide
 
OOHNH
Phenylethylamine
 
NH
2
         M         I         K         E         C         I         E        S         I         E         l        S         K         I
 
The, thee is heethamie (pEA), aatua bai chemica which stimuates theats of the bai that kee ou aet a mim-ics the bai chemist of a eso i oe.
i chocolatehealthy?
recet stuies hae exoe chemicas ichocoate cae oheos, which beogto a age gou of chemicas cae atioxi-ats. These chemicas otect ces agaistamage fom fee aicas—atoms, mo-ecues, o ios with uaie eectos.Isie ces, fee aicas amage dnAa hae bee associate with Azheime’sisease, heat isease, a cace. Atioxi-ats eet this amage fom haeig bbockig the actio of fee aicas a matheefoe euce the isk of beig affecte bthese iseases.Atioxiats wok b sowig o eetiga chemica eactio cae oxiatio, whichca ouce fee aicas. Atioxiats temi-ate this eactio b eetig fee aicasfom beig fome. Exames of atioxiatsicue thios, which ae ogaic comousthat cotai a fuctioa gou comose ofa sufu atom a a hoge atom (-SH) aoheos, which ae ogaic comousthat cotai OH gous attache to six-mem-bee bezee igs.The heath beefits of some oheos—such as queceti, which is fou i citusfuit, buckwheat, a oios—ae we estab-ishe, whie othe oheos’ heath effectsae sti beig iestigate. The agest abest stuie gou of oheos ae thefaoois, a gou of seea thousa com-ous eset i aious fuits, egetabes,a chocoate.joe viso, ofessoof chemist at the Ui-esit of Scato, pa.,a his eseach stuetshae fou that ohe-os i chocoate haebeeficia effects agaist heat isease. Thescietists showe that cocoa oheosacte as atioxiats i the bo, comaewith cocout butte a suga aoe. Aso,the scietists iscoee that i hamstes,cocoa owe at a ose equiaet to twoak chocoate bas e a sigificatihibite atheosceosis, a te of heatisease i which fat cogs u ateies, aaise the ees of goo choesteo.Cocoa is esecia ich i chemicas caefaaos, which ae faoois aso fou itea, wie, a uts. Ia Mcoa, ofessoof metaboic hsioog at The Uiesitof nottigham, a coeagues hae showthat eoe who cosume a faao-ichcocoa beeage ha icease boo fow ithei bais. This esut suggests that cocoafaaos cou be use to eet ascuaimaimets i the bai esutig fom, sa,a stoke.noma Hoebeg, ofesso of meicieat the Haa Meica Schoo aBigham a Wome’s Hosita,a coeagues hae obsee thatthe cosumtio of a faao-ichcocoa beeage aso iceases theamout of itic oxie i the booesses, aowig them to iate asta iabe. This esut suggests thatcocoa faaos cou aso be useto imoe heat heath.Aso, jua CaosEsi e Gea, a seioeseach scietist atthe Saish reseachCouci i Mucia,Sai, a coeaguesae wokig o o-cessig the cocoabeas iffeet toicue the faooisusua ost i the ocessig of thebeas. The aske six outees tocosume a mik beeage mae withfaooi-eiche cocoa a ateto ik chocoate mik mae fomtaitioa cocoa. Whe the akthe faooi-eiche cocoa, theseoutees ha eight times moe ofatioxiats eicatechi a ocaii B2tha whe the ak egua chocoate mik.Aothe iece of goo ews: you mightthik that chocoate causes ace, ecasteeth, a makes ou fat. not so. no cu-et eseach coects secific foos to skiobems. Chocoate husks cotai chemicasthat eet tooth eca (athough the o’toffset the ae suga), a too much foocauses weight gai.But how about a this satuate fat, usuabame fo the is of chocoate? let’s ookat how chocoate is mae to uesta whchocoate is ot
totally 
heath.
How chocolate ade
The cacao beas use to make chocoatecome fom a tee cae
Theobroma cacao 
 (foo of the Gos) that is cutiate i thetoics. Ti fies cae miges oiate the
    A    l    l    S    T    r    U    C    T    U    r    E    S   :    C    E    S    A    r    C    A    M    I    n    E    r    O
14 Chematter
, APRIL 2009www.acs.org/chemmatters
OHOHOHOHOHOHHOHOHO(a) (b) (c) (d)
Examples of flavanols: epicatechin (a) and epigallocatechin (b).
 
HOOHOHOHOHO(a)(b)HOOHOHOHOHOHO
ABeFG
 Production of Chocolate
Phenol (a) and three examples of phenol derivatives: pyrogallol(b), phloroglucinol (c), and hydroquinone (d). These moleculesare components of large molecules called polyphenols.Cocoa beans are harvestedCocoa beans are fermentedand driedChocolate liquor is pressed,creating cocoa butterBeans are ground, leadingto a “chocolate liquor”Chocolate liquor is pressedand ground, creating cocoapowder *
 Products:
* bakng chocolat andlqud chocolat** chocolat-coatdproducts*** plan or mlk chocolat

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