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Cristian Olariu, • “Tropaeum Traiani: The Basilica D Sector (With Transept) and the Surrounding Area (Archaeological Researches, 2000-2006)”, in Rakocija, Misa, ed., Niš and Byzantium. Seventh Symposium. Niš, 3-5 June 2008. The Collection of Scientific Works VII, Niš, 2009, pp. 163-177.

Cristian Olariu, • “Tropaeum Traiani: The Basilica D Sector (With Transept) and the Surrounding Area (Archaeological Researches, 2000-2006)”, in Rakocija, Misa, ed., Niš and Byzantium. Seventh Symposium. Niš, 3-5 June 2008. The Collection of Scientific Works VII, Niš, 2009, pp. 163-177.

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Published by colariu
My research results at the Roman archaeological site Tropaeum Traiani (Adamclisi, Constanta county, Romania)
My research results at the Roman archaeological site Tropaeum Traiani (Adamclisi, Constanta county, Romania)

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Published by: colariu on Jul 03, 2010
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05/12/2014

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Ni{ i Vizantija
VII 
 
155
Cristian Olariu
TROPAEUM TRAIANI: THE BASILICA D SECTOR (WITH TRANSEPT) AND THE SURROUNDINGAREA(ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCHES, 2000-2006)
General presentation
The city (and fortress) of Tropaeum Traiani (today, Adamclisi, Constantacounty) is located in the southern part of the Late Roman province of ScythiaMinor, at the intersection of the ancient roads that linked Aegyssus (Tulcea)in the northern part of the province, with the Moesia Inferior (later known asMoesia Secunda) in the south. From east to west, the fortress controlled theroad from Callatis (on the shore of Pontus Euxinus) to the
limes
(at Sucidava-Izvoarele).The city was located on the following coordinates: 44
0
05” north latitude,27
0
56” east longitude, being located on a natural plateau, 66 m high from thesea level. It was founded by the Roman emperor Trajan, as a result of his victoryover the Daces, during the campaign of winter 101/102 AD, and it is closely re-lated to the triumphal
monumentum
raised by the same emperor nearby
1
. It wasnot an
ex nihilo
settlement; on the same place, there existed formerly an autoch-thonous settlement
2
. A Constantinian one followed the Trajanic foundation
3
.The city lasted until the VII
th
century AD, when, due to the savage barbarianinvasions, it was gradually deserted. Thus, at the arrival of the Ottoman Turks,there were only remains of the Trajanic monument. The name of the actual vil-lage, Adamclisi, is derived from Turkish, meaning (Adam klissi tc., “the churchof man”), closely related to the form of the ancient monument
4
.
1
See for details
Tropaeum Traiani. I. Cetatea
, Alexandru Barnea, Ion Barnea (coor-
dinator), Ioana Bogdan Cătăniciu, Monica Mărgineanu-Cârstoiu, Gheorghe Papuc, Bucureşti,
Editura Academiei RSR, 1979, p. 13.
2
 
 Ibidem
.
3
 
CIL
, III, 12470. see also
Tropaeum Traiani
…, p. 13.
4
 
The Turks saw it as a deserted Christian church. See also
Tropaeum Traiani
…, p. 15.
 
156
Cristian Olariu
 A short history of the archaeological researches
The archaeological excavations started in 1891, conducted by Gr.
Tocilescu
5
. Several other researchers, such as G. Murnu, P. Nicorescu, Gh.Ştefan and Ion Barnea, followed these. The last one is also responsible for there-start of the archaeological excavations, in 1968; since 1975, the scientic re
-sponsible is Alexandru Barnea, professor at the Faculty of History, University of 
5
For the history of research, see
Tropaeum Traiani
…, pp. 15-34.
Fig. 1. General plan of Tropaeum Traiani.Сл. 1. Генерални план Тропеум Трајани.
 
Ni{ i Vizantija
VII 
 
157
Bucharest. The rst researches were concentrated on the fortication and publicedices, with an accent on the aspect of public monuments and the retrieval of 
ancient objects. The research technique was, according to the XIX
th
centuryAD, mainly related to putting in evidence the Early Roman walls, the later onesthus being considered as “barbarian”. In consequence, they were removed, thus being lost a large part of the archaeological information. Thus, a large part of the archaeological information was lost (mainly those related to the last part of dwelling of the city, this related to the Vth and VIth centuries AD). According
to this system, the main objective was to retrieve the main edices and the
most spectacular objects. Only in the late period of excavations, post 1968, the
researches had a scientic approach, thus being included stratigraphic analysis,a scientic technique of research, registration of all objects discovered, and so
on. The Roman city was divided in 4 sectors (A, B, C and D) and it was suitedto preserve for conservation the IV
th
century level of inhabitance.
The D sector 
The sector of the D
basilica
(with transept) is located inside a squareformed by the landmarks 39-39 on the north side and 42-43 on the southernside
6
. The archaeological research is related to the technique of surface excava-tion, thus being stopped at the latest stepping level, except for some soundingsdown to the IV
th
century AD level. This technique is used especially in order to put in evidence the Late Roman level (V
th
-VI
th
centuries AD), the most impor-tant in order to understand the latest phases of dwelling at Tropaeum Traiani.
The basilica D sector. The interior and annexes
Inside the basilica D there were made several cases, in order to elucidatethe construction phases of the basilica. According to the research, there wereobserved the following: a. the D basilica was constructed on the remains of a
former large edice, heated in the hypocaust technique; to support this state
-ment, we have the discoveries inside the basilica: an apse in the southern part
of the basilica (see the plan from gures 5A and 5B), later re-used, with a pave
-ment formed of slabs (37 x 37 cm), discovered on the whole of the apse; in thecases opened in the northern part of the basilica, there were also discoveredhypocaust piles, at –86 cm.
Subsequent to this edice, it seems that it was erected a rst
basilica
,
 probably unnished, identiable only by the wall discovered in C22 and C23,
with a slightly-deviated orientation towards south (from the main direction,
east-west), too thin to sustain the large projected edice, that what abandoned.The next edice is the still visible one, where there can be found at least three building phases. A rst level is formed of yellow clay, fragmentary preserved
and broken by a series of garbage pits (as in C25, at –104 cm; C15, at –90 cm;C26, at –150 cm). There had appeared also two stepping levels (mortar), in the
6
See the annexed plans (gures 1, 5A and 5B).

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