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4604 Solutions Set2 Fa07

4604 Solutions Set2 Fa07

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Published by Muhammad Nomaan ❊

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Published by: Muhammad Nomaan ❊ on Jul 04, 2010
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PHY4604 Fall 2007 Problem Set 2 Solutions Department of Physics Page 1 of 14
PHY 4604 Problem Set #2 Solutions
Problem 1 (10 points):
The time-dependent
 
Schrödinger’s equation is),()( ),(2),(
222
 x x  x xm xi
Ψ+Ψ=Ψ
hh
,where we take the potential energy, V, to be only a function of x (not of time). We look for solutions of the form)()(),(
 x x
Φ=Ψ
ψ 
.The time-dependent equation separates into two equations (separation constant E).)()()( )(2
222
 x E  x x  x xm
ψ ψ ψ 
=+
h
and )()(
 E dt i
Φ=Φ
h
.Thus,
h
/
)(
iEt 
e
=Φ
.
(a) (3 points)
For normalizable solutions, show that the separation constant
E
must be real.
Solution: 
Following Griffith’s problem 2.1 we set
Γ+=
i E  E 
, where E
and
Γ
are real. Thus,
hhh
///
)()(),(
iE iEt 
ee xe x x
Γ
==Ψ
ψ ψ 
 and
∫ ∫ 
+∞Γ+∞
==ΨΨ
dx x xedx x x
)()(1),(),(
/2
ψ ψ 
h
.The second term is independent of time and hence
Γ
= 0 and E is real. One can prove E is real by noting that if V(x) is real then
( )
∫ ∫ 
+∞+∞
=
dx x x H dx x H  x
opop
)()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ 
,where)(22)(
2222
 x xmm p H 
opop xop
+=+=
h
.The time-independent Schrödinger equation is)()(
 x E  x H 
op
ψ ψ 
=
which yields
∫ ∫ 
+∞+∞
=
dx x x E dx x H  x
op
)()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ 
 
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫ 
+∞+∞+∞
==
dx x x E dx x x E dx x x H 
op
)()()()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ 
 Thus, E = E
*
which means that E is real.
(b) (3 points)
Show that
E
corresponds to the total energy and that )()(),(
 x x
Φ=Ψ
ψ 
 corresponds to a state with definite energy (
i.e.
 
Δ
E = 0).
Solution:
 E dx x x E dx x H  x H  E 
opop
==>=>=<<
∫ ∫ 
+∞+∞
)()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ 
 
 
PHY4604 Fall 2007 Problem Set 2 Solutions Department of Physics Page 2 of 14
22222
)()( )())()(()())((
 E dx x x E  dx x H  H  xdx x H  x H  E 
opopopop
===>=>=<<
∫ ∫ ∫ 
++∞+∞
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ 
 Thus, (
Δ
E)
2
= <E
2
> - <E>
2
= 0. Also note that since
h
/
)(),(
iEt 
e x x
=Ψ
ψ 
we have
 E dx x x E dx x i xdx x E  x E  E 
opop
==Ψ ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ Ψ=ΨΨ>=>=<<
∫ ∫ ∫ 
+∞+∞+∞
)()(),(),(),(),(
ψ ψ 
h
.
(c) (4 points)
Show that the time-independent wave function,)(
 x
ψ 
, can always be taken to be areal function. (Hint: take V to be real and see Griffith’s problem 2.1)
Solution:
If )(
 x
ψ 
satisfies )()(
 x E  x H 
op
ψ ψ 
=
we can take the complex conjugate of both sidesand get )()(
 x E  x H 
op
=
ψ ψ 
, but H
op*
= H
op
and E
*
= E and hence )()(
 x E  x H 
op
=
ψ ψ 
. Thus,
( ) ( )
)()()()(
 x x E  x x H 
op
+=+
ψ ψ ψ ψ 
and we see that
( )
)()(
 x x
+
ψ ψ 
is a solution to the time-independent equation and
( )
)()(
 x x
+
ψ ψ 
is real.
 Problem 2 (50 points):
Consider an infinite square well defined by
V(x) = 0
for 
0 < x < a
, and
V(x) =
otherwise.
(a) (4 points)
Show that the stationary states are given by
h
/
)(),(
iE nn
n
e x x
=Ψ
ψ 
with )/sin(2)(
a xna x
n
π ψ 
=
 and
2222
2
man E 
n
h
π 
=
, and n is a positive integer.
Solution:
For the region outside of 
0 < x < a
0)(
=
 x
ψ 
and inside the region)()(2
222
 x E  x xm
ψ ψ 
=
h
or )()(
222
 x x x
ψ ψ 
=
with
m E 
2
22
h
=
 The most general solution is of the form)cos()sin()(
kx Bkx A x
+=
ψ 
.The boundary condition at x = 0 gives0)0(
==
 B
ψ 
and the boundary condition at x = a gives0)sin()(
==
ka Aa
ψ 
which implies that
π 
nka
=
with n = 1, 2, 3,… Thus,)/sin()(
a xn A x
n
π ψ 
=
with
2222
2
man E 
n
h
π 
=
. The normalization is arrived at by requiring that24)2sin(2)(sin)/(sin1)()(
202022022
aA y ynaAdy ynaAdxa xn Adx x x
nnann
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ====
∫ ∫ ∫ 
+∞
π π 
π π π ψ ψ 
 Thus,
a A
/2
=
. These states are called stationary because the probability density and all theexpectation values are independent of time.
(b) (2 points)
Show that the states, )(
 x
n
ψ 
, form an orthonormal set. Namely, show that
mnnm
dx x x
δ ψ ψ 
=
∫ 
+∞
)()(.
 
PHY4604 Fall 2007 Problem Set 2 Solutions Department of Physics Page 3 of 14
Solution:
 
mnanm
dymymydxa xna xm adx x x
δ π π π ψ ψ 
π 
===
∫ ∫ ∫ 
+∞
00
)sin()sin( 2)/sin()/sin( 2)()(  
(c) (8 points)
Calculate
<x>
,
<x
2
>
,
<p
x
>
, and
<p
x2
>
for the n
th
stationary state.
Answer:
 2
a x
n
=><
,
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =><
222
)(2131
π 
na x
n
, 0
=><
n x
 p
,
22222
an p
n x
h
π 
=><
 
Solution:
 28)2cos(4)2sin(4)(2)(sin2)/(sin 2)())((
02202202
a y y y y nady y ynaadxa xn x adx x x x x
nnanopnn
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===><
∫ ∫ ∫ 
+∞
π π 
π π π ψ ψ 
 
 ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===><
∫ ∫ ∫ 
+∞
2233202332022302222
)(213146)()(24)2cos()2sin(8146)( 2)(sin2)/(sin 2)())((
π π π π π π π ψ ψ 
π π 
nannna y y y y ynady y ynaadxa xn x adx x x x x
nnanopnn
 There are two ways to calculate <p
x
>
n
. The easiest is to take the time derivative of <x> asfollows:0
=><=><
dt  xm p
nn x
.The more difficult way is to evaluate02)(sin2 )cos()sin( 2)/cos()/sin( 2)()()())((
0200
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==><
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ 
+∞+∞
π π 
π π π ψ ψ ψ ψ 
nnannnop xnn x
 yaidy y yaidxa xna xn anaidx x xi xdx x p x p
hhhh
 There are also two ways to calculate <p
x2
>
n
. The easy way is to use the fact that since in this problem V = 0 we have
m p H 
op xop
2)(
2
=
and
nnnop
 E  H 
ψ ψ 
=
so that
nnnop x
mE  p
ψ ψ 
2)(
2
=
and hence
2222222222
22)()(2)())((
anmanmdx x xmE dx x p x p
nnnnop xnn x
hh
π π ψ ψ ψ ψ 
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===><
∫ ∫ 
+∞+∞
.The more difficult way is to evaluate

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