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4604 Solutions Set2 Fa07

# 4604 Solutions Set2 Fa07

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PHY4604 Fall 2007 Problem Set 2 Solutions Department of Physics Page 1 of 14
PHY 4604 Problem Set #2 Solutions
Problem 1 (10 points):
The time-dependent

Schrödinger’s equation is),()( ),(2),(
222
x x  x xm xi
Ψ+Ψ=Ψ
hh
,where we take the potential energy, V, to be only a function of x (not of time). We look for solutions of the form)()(),(
x x
Φ=Ψ
ψ
.The time-dependent equation separates into two equations (separation constant E).)()()( )(2
222
x E  x x  x xm
ψ ψ ψ
=+
h
and )()(
E dt i
Φ=Φ
h
.Thus,
h
/
)(
iEt
e
=Φ
.
(a) (3 points)
For normalizable solutions, show that the separation constant
E
must be real.
Solution:
Following Griffith’s problem 2.1 we set
Γ+=
i E  E
, where E
and
Γ
are real. Thus,
hhh
///
)()(),(
iE iEt
ee xe x x
Γ
==Ψ
ψ ψ
and
∫ ∫
+∞Γ+∞
==ΨΨ
dx x xedx x x
)()(1),(),(
/2
ψ ψ
h
.The second term is independent of time and hence
Γ
= 0 and E is real. One can prove E is real by noting that if V(x) is real then
( )
∫ ∫
+∞+∞
=
dx x x H dx x H  x
opop
)()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ
,where)(22)(
2222
x xmm p H
opop xop
+=+=
h
.The time-independent Schrödinger equation is)()(
x E  x H
op
ψ ψ
=
which yields
∫ ∫
+∞+∞
=
dx x x E dx x H  x
op
)()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ

( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫
+∞+∞+∞
==
dx x x E dx x x E dx x x H
op
)()()()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ
Thus, E = E
*
which means that E is real.
(b) (3 points)
Show that
E
corresponds to the total energy and that )()(),(
x x
Φ=Ψ
ψ
corresponds to a state with definite energy (
i.e.

Δ
E = 0).
Solution:
E dx x x E dx x H  x H  E
opop
==>=>=<<
∫ ∫
+∞+∞
)()()()(
ψ ψ ψ ψ

PHY4604 Fall 2007 Problem Set 2 Solutions Department of Physics Page 2 of 14
22222
)()( )())()(()())((
E dx x x E  dx x H  H  xdx x H  x H  E
opopopop
===>=>=<<
∫ ∫ ∫
++∞+∞
ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ ψ
Thus, (
Δ
E)
2
= <E
2
> - <E>
2
= 0. Also note that since
h
/
)(),(
iEt
e x x
=Ψ
ψ
we have
E dx x x E dx x i xdx x E  x E  E
opop
==Ψ ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ Ψ=ΨΨ>=>=<<
∫ ∫ ∫
+∞+∞+∞
)()(),(),(),(),(
ψ ψ
h
.
(c) (4 points)
Show that the time-independent wave function,)(
x
ψ
, can always be taken to be areal function. (Hint: take V to be real and see Griffith’s problem 2.1)
Solution:
If )(
x
ψ
satisfies )()(
x E  x H
op
ψ ψ
=
we can take the complex conjugate of both sidesand get )()(
x E  x H
op
=
ψ ψ
, but H
op*
= H
op
and E
*
= E and hence )()(
x E  x H
op
=
ψ ψ
. Thus,
( ) ( )
)()()()(
x x E  x x H
op
+=+
ψ ψ ψ ψ
and we see that
( )
)()(
x x
+
ψ ψ
is a solution to the time-independent equation and
( )
)()(
x x
+
ψ ψ
is real.
Problem 2 (50 points):
Consider an infinite square well defined by
V(x) = 0
for
0 < x < a
, and
V(x) =
otherwise.
(a) (4 points)
Show that the stationary states are given by
h
/
)(),(
iE nn
n
e x x
=Ψ
ψ
with )/sin(2)(
a xna x
n
π ψ
=
and
2222
2
man E
n
h
π
=
, and n is a positive integer.
Solution:
For the region outside of
0 < x < a
0)(
=
x
ψ
and inside the region)()(2
222
x E  x xm
ψ ψ
=
h
or )()(
222
x x x
ψ ψ
=
with
m E
2
22
h
=
The most general solution is of the form)cos()sin()(
kx Bkx A x
+=
ψ
.The boundary condition at x = 0 gives0)0(
==
B
ψ
and the boundary condition at x = a gives0)sin()(
==
ka Aa
ψ
which implies that
π
nka
=
with n = 1, 2, 3,… Thus,)/sin()(
a xn A x
n
π ψ
=
with
2222
2
man E
n
h
π
=
. The normalization is arrived at by requiring that24)2sin(2)(sin)/(sin1)()(
202022022
nnann
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ====
∫ ∫ ∫
+∞
π π
π π π ψ ψ
Thus,
a A
/2
=
. These states are called stationary because the probability density and all theexpectation values are independent of time.
(b) (2 points)
Show that the states, )(
x
n
ψ
, form an orthonormal set. Namely, show that
mnnm
dx x x
δ ψ ψ
=
∫
+∞
)()(.

PHY4604 Fall 2007 Problem Set 2 Solutions Department of Physics Page 3 of 14
Solution:

mnanm
dymymydxa xna xm adx x x
δ π π π ψ ψ
π
===
∫ ∫ ∫
+∞
00
)sin()sin( 2)/sin()/sin( 2)()(
(c) (8 points)
Calculate
<x>
,
<x
2
>
,
<p
x
>
, and
<p
x2
>
for the n
th
stationary state.
2
a x
n
=><
,
⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ =><
222
)(2131
π
na x
n
, 0
=><
n x
p
,
22222
an p
n x
h
π
=><

Solution:
28)2cos(4)2sin(4)(2)(sin2)/(sin 2)())((
02202202
nnanopnn
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===><
∫ ∫ ∫
+∞
π π
π π π ψ ψ

⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ = ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===><
∫ ∫ ∫
+∞
2233202332022302222
)(213146)()(24)2cos()2sin(8146)( 2)(sin2)/(sin 2)())((
π π π π π π π ψ ψ
π π
nnanopnn
There are two ways to calculate <p
x
>
n
. The easiest is to take the time derivative of <x> asfollows:0
=><=><
dt  xm p
nn x
.The more difficult way is to evaluate02)(sin2 )cos()sin( 2)/cos()/sin( 2)()()())((
0200
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===  ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==><
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
+∞+∞
π π
π π π ψ ψ ψ ψ
nnannnop xnn x
yaidy y yaidxa xna xn anaidx x xi xdx x p x p
hhhh
There are also two ways to calculate <p
x2
>
n
. The easy way is to use the fact that since in this problem V = 0 we have
m p H
op xop
2)(
2
=
and
nnnop
E  H
ψ ψ
=
so that
nnnop x
mE  p
ψ ψ
2)(
2
=
and hence
2222222222
22)()(2)())((
anmanmdx x xmE dx x p x p
nnnnop xnn x
hh
π π ψ ψ ψ ψ
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ===><
∫ ∫
+∞+∞
.The more difficult way is to evaluate