ying such migration and explains the wide range in expertestimates o climate change-induced migrant populations.It was also dicult to dene the range o climate change-induced migration because o the institutional and gover-nance implications o doing so: Denitions o the “problem”(i.e., as a migration, humanitarian, development, security,or environmental issue) allow an assignment o authority toaddress environmentally induced migration.
How institutions and policies affect environmentallyinduced migration outcomes
Emerging empirical research indicates that environmentalchanges including climate change currently play a role inmigration (Jäger at et al., 2009; Warner et al., 2008, 2009).Figure 1 (see page 17) provides a typology o dierent ormso environmentally induced migration or rapid- and slow-onset environmental stressors (Renaud et al., 2010). Dis-tinguishing between rapid- and slow-onset events providesa useul point o departure or understanding the potentialgovernance needs o migrants, as well as possible gaps incurrent institutions and policies designed to address humanmobility. Tis section will explore how institutions andpolicy aect environmentally induced migration, pointingout the role o time, environmental stressors, the quality o policy interventions, and gaps in policy and governance.
Governance gaps: rapid-onset environmental changeand migration
One subset o environmentally induced migration is relatedto rapid-onset environmental changes – ofen in the orm o natural disasters. Tis section discusses the current gover-nance gaps related to managing human mobility in the aceo rapid-onset environmental change, and highlights theimportance o eective pre- and post-disaster management.able 1 (see page 15) provides an overview o these gaps.
Rapid-onset climate events
Te occurrence o migration related to rapid-onset eventsis perhaps the easiest to identiy because the impacts o theenvironmental event are relatively observable, and in somecases reported by the media. Such events include severeweather such as ooding, windstorms, storm surges andlandslides (ofen related to heavy rains), as well as geologicaloccurrences like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Whenrapid-onset natural disasters occur, people ofen must eerom the aected area to avoid physical harm or loss o lie. In some cases homes are destroyed, making tempo-rary resettlement in shelters a necessary risk managementapproach. During and afer rapid-onset events, livelihoodsare ofen lost or interrupted through destruction o crops,livestock or productive assets. Tese kinds o impacts canmotivate people to move. Te way that disasters o this typeare managed plays a role in people’s mobility decisions.Te time period o interest in governing human mobil-ity and rapid-onset environmental hazards is typically therst 72 hours ollowing an event or humanitarian relie eorts. Te ocus o these eorts is ofen around rescue,establishing temporary shelters, and medical help. In thedays ollowing a disaster, humanitarian eorts may shif to-wards providing clean ood and water, stabilization o localpopulations and assessment o the situation. Ofen mediais present in these rst ew days ollowing an event, andplay a role in mobilizing resources to pay or humanitarianassistance. In cases where people are evacuated or displaceddue to a disaster, policy gaps ofen arise around where thesepeople should go in the weeks, months and sometimesyears ollowing a disaster. wo examples o evacuation andsubsequent (permanent) displacement include HurricaneKatrina (2005) and the eruption o the Montserrat volcanoin the Caribbean.
Role of policy interventions and governance gaps(post-disaster recovery, legal status of displaced people)
For rapid-onset events, humanitarian organizations lead theeorts to assist people aected by and possibly displacedby environmental hazards, in coordination with nationalgovernments and donors. Te ecacy o governance playsa critical role in whether migrants will return, or whetherthey will stay away indenitely. Migrants will likely needsupport in integration, establishing livelihoods in new areasand protection rom any number o discriminatory prac-tices. Sof law such as the Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced People (IDP) may protect these people to someextent, but the lack o recognition o environmental stress-ors as a legitimate cause o migration may limit eectiveassistance or protection. Following the 2002 earthquakes inEl Salvador and the 2005 Hurricane Katrina, governmentslike the United States have granted temporary visas or mi-
Study Team on Climate-Induced Migration