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Communication Technique Table

Communication Technique Table

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Published by: Noelah_Marie_L_9220 on Jul 05, 2010
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Using silenceAccepting pauses or silences that may extend foseveral seconds or minutes without interjecting anyverbal response.Sitting quietly or walking with theclient.Providing generalleadsUsing statements or questions that encourage theclient, choose a topic of conversation, and facilitatecontinued verbalization.“Can you tell me how it is for you?”“Where would you like to begin?”Being Specific andtentativeMaking statements that are specific rather than thegeneral, and tentative rather than absolute.“Rate you pain on a scale of 0-10.”“You seem concerned about your diabetes.”Using open-endedquestionsAsking broad questions that lead or invite the client toexplore (elaborate, clarify, describe, compare or illustrate) thoughts or feelings. Open-ended questionsspecify only the topic to be discussed and inviteanswers that are no longer than one or two words.“I’d like to hear more about that.”“How have you been feeling lately?”Using touchProviding appropriate forms of touch to reinforcecaring feelings.Putting an arm over the client’sshoulder.Restating or  paraphrasingActive listening for the client’s basic message andthen repeating those thoughts and feelings in similar words.Client: “I couldn’t manage to eat lastnight.” Nurse: “You had difficulty eatingyesterday.”Seeking clarificationA method of making the client’s broad overallmeaning of the message more understandable. It isused when paraphrasing is difficult or whencommunication is rambling or garbled.“Would you tell me more?”“I’m not sure I understand that.”Perception checking or seeking consensualvalidationA method similar to clarifying that verifies themeaning of specific words rather than the overallmeaning of the message.Client: “My husband never gives meany presents.” Nurse: “You mean he has never givenyou a present for your birthday or Christmas?”Offering selfSuggesting ones presence, interest, or wish tounderstand the client without making any demands or attaching conditions that the client must comply withto receive the nurse’s attention.“I’ll stay with you until your daughter arrives.”Giving informationProviding, in a simple and direct manner, specificfactual information the client may or may not request.“Your surgery is scheduled 11 amtomorrow.”AcknowledgingGiving recognition, in a non judgmental way, of achange in behavior, en effort the client has made, or acontribution to a communication.“I noticed that you got a new hair cut.”Clarifying time andsequenceHelping the client clarify an event, situation, or happening in relationship to time.Client: “I vomited this morning.” Nurse: “Was that before breakfast?”Presenting realityHelping the client to differentiate the real from theunreal.“Your magazine is here in the drawer.It has not been stolen.”FocusingHelping the client expand on and develop a topic oimportance.Client: “My wife says she will look after me, but I don’t think she can.” Nurse: “Sounds like you are worriedabout how she can manage.”ReflectingDirecting ideas, feelings, questions, or content back toclients to enable them to explore their own ideas andfeelings about a situation.Client: “What can I do?” Nurse: “What do you think will behelpful?”Summarizing and planningStating the main points of a discussion to clarify therelevant points discussed.“During the past half hour we havetalked about...”
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATIONTechniqueDescriptionExamples
StereotypingOffering generalized and oversimplified beliefs aboutgroups of people that are based on experiences toolimited to be valid. These responses categorize clientsand negate their uniqueness as individuals.“Men don’t cry.”Agreeing anddisagreeingThis implies that the client is either wrong or right andthat the nurse is in a position to judge this. Theseresponses deter clients from thinking through their  position and may cause a client to become defensive.Client: “I don’t think he is a gooddoctor. He doesn’t seem interested inhis patients.” Nurse: “He is the head of theDepartment of Medicine and is anexcellent physician.”Being defensiveAttempting to protect a person from negativecomments. These responses prevent the client fromexpressing true concerns.Client: “Last night, the nurses wereonly sleeping because nobody camewhen I buzzer.” Nurse: “We worked all night andyou’re not my only client.”

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