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Published by Zurneva Rosy

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Published by: Zurneva Rosy on Jul 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to:navigation, search This article is about general aspects of water. For a detailed discussion of its properties,seeProperties of water . For other uses, seeWater (disambiguation). Water in three states: liquid, solid (ice
), and (invisible) water vapor in the air.Clouds are the accumulations of the droplets,condensedfrom vapor-saturated air.
is achemical substancethat is composed of  hydrogenandoxygenand is vital for  all known forms of life.
In typical usage,
refers only to its liquidform or state, but the substance also has a solidstate, ice, and agaseousstate,water vapor or steam. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.
On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies,with 1.6% of water below ground inaquifers and 0.001% in the air  asvapor , clouds  (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.
 Oceans hold 97% of surface water,glaciersand polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water  such asrivers, lakesand  ponds0.6%. A very small amount of the Earth's water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.Water on Earth moves continually through acycleof  evaporation or transpiration  (evapotranspiration), precipitation, andrunoff ,usually reaching thesea.Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.Cleandrinking water  is essential tohumanand other lifeforms. Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in almost every partof the world.
There is a clear correlation between access to safe water andGDPper capita.
However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of theworld populationwill be facing water-based vulnerability.
A recent report (November 2009) suggests that by 2030, in some developing regions of the world, water demand willexceed supply by 50%.
Water plays an important role in theworld economy, as itfunctions as asolventfor a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial
cooling and transportation. Approximately 70% of  freshwater  is consumed byagriculture.
Chemical and physical properties
Main articles:Water (properties), Water (data page), andWater model Model of  hydrogen bondsbetween molecules of water  Impact from a water drop causes an upward "rebound" jet surrounded by circular capillary waves.
byWilson Bentley, 1902Dewdrops adhering to aspider webCapillary actionof water compared tomercuryWater is thechemical substancewithchemical formula 
: one moleculeof water has twohydrogen atoms covalently  bondedto a singleoxygenatom. Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may take many differentforms on Earth: water vapor and clouds in the sky;seawater andicebergs in the polar  oceans;glaciers andriversin themountains; and the liquid in aquifers in the ground. The major chemical and physical properties of water are:
Water is a tasteless, odorless liquid atstandard temperature and pressure. Thecolor of water  and ice is, intrinsically, a very slight blue hue, although water appears colorless in small quantities. Ice also appears colorless, and water vapor isessentially invisible as a gas.
Water istransparent, and thusaquatic plants can live within the water because sunlightcan reach them. Only strong UV light is slightly absorbed.

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