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Disaster Management

Disaster Management

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Published by Aniruddha Joshi

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Aniruddha Joshi on Jul 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/27/2011

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Disaster Management
A
disaster
is the impact of anaturalor human-made hazardthat negatively affects society or environment. The root of the word
disaster 
comesfrom
astrology
: this implies that when the stars arein a bad position a bad event will happen.
[1]
Theword derives from MiddleFrench 
désastre
, fromOldItalian 
disastro
, from theGreek   pejorativeprefix
-
, (
dis-
) "bad" +

(
aster 
), "star".In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as theconsequence of inappropriately managed risk. Theserisks are the product of hazards and vulnerability.Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerabilityare not considered a disaster, as is the case inuninhabited regions.
[2]
 Developing countries suffer the greatest costs whena disaster hits ± more than 95 percent of all deathscaused by disasters occur in developing countries,and losses due to natural disasters are 20 timesgreater (as a percentage of GDP) in developingcountries than in industrialized countries.
[3]
 A disaster can be defined as any tragic event thatinvolves at least one victim of circumstance, such as
 
anaccident,fire,terrorist attack , or explosion.
[
c
itationneeded 
]
 
Cl
assification
W
isner et al reflect a common opinion when theyargue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent itdeveloping into a disaster. All disasters are hence theresult of human failure to introduce appropriatedisaster managementmeasures.
[4]
Hazards areroutinely divided into natural or human-made,although complex disasters, where there is no singleroot cause, are more common indevelopingcountries. A specific disaster may spawn asecondary disaster that increases the impact. Aclassic example is anearthquakethat causes atsunami, resulting in coastalflooding.
[edit] Natura
l
disasters
 M 
ain arti
c
le: Natural disaster 
 A natural disaster is the consequence when a naturalhazard(e.g.,volcanic eruptionor earthquake) affects humans. Humanvulnerability, caused by the lack of 
 
appropriateemergency management, leads tofinancial, environmental, or human impact. Theresulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster: their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in theformulation: "disasters occur when hazards meetvulnerability". A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas withoutvulnerability, e.g., strong earthquakes in uninhabitedareas. The term natural has consequently beendisputed because the events simply are not hazardsor disasters without human involvement.
[edit] Human-made disasters
 M 
ain arti
c
le:
 M 
an-made hazards
 Disasters caused by human action, negligence, error, or involving the failure of a system arecalled human-made disasters. Human-made disasters are in turn categorized as technological or sociological. Technological disasters are the results of failure of technology, such as engineeringfailures, transport disasters, or environmental disasters. Sociological disasters have a stronghuman motive, such ascriminal acts,stampedes,riots, andwar .
What is Disaster? Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, anddestruction and devastation to life and property. The damage caused by disasters is immeasurableand varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of the earth surface/degree of vulnerability. This influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural state of the affectedarea. Generally, disaster has the following effects in the concerned areas,
1.
 
It completely disrupts the normal day to day life
 
2
.
 
It negatively influences the emergency systems
 

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