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Cul04 - 2 Indian Cuisine - Edited

Cul04 - 2 Indian Cuisine - Edited

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Indian Cuisine
Indian cuisine is characterized by the use of various spices, herbs and other vegetables andsometimes fruits grown in India and also for the widespread practice of vegetarianism acrossmany sections of its society. Each family of Indian cuisine is characterized by a wide assortmentof dishes and cooking techniques. As a consequence, it varies from region to region, reflectingthe varied demographics of the ethnically diverse Indian subcontinent.India's religious beliefs and culture have played an influential role in the evolution of its cuisine.However, cuisine across India also evolved due to the subcontinent's large-scale culturalinteractions with ancient Greece, Persia, Mongols and West Asia, making it a unique blend of various cuisines across Asia. The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited as themain catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery. The colonial period introduced European cookingstyles to India adding to the flexibility and diversity of Indian cuisine. Indian cuisine has had aremarkable influence on cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia.Edited part of source
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_cuisine
(simplified)
 
El
ements
The staples of Indian cuisine:
Rice,
Atta (whole wheat flour)
Variety of pulses: the most important
Masoor (most often red lentil)C
Channa (bengal gram)
Toor (pigeon pea or yellow gram)
Urad (black gram)
Mung (green gram)Pulses may be used whole, dehusked, for example dhuli moong or dhuli urad, or split.Pulses are used extensively in the form of dal (split). Some of the pulses like channa and"Mung" are also processed into flour (besan).Most
Indian curries
are cooked in vegetable oil.
North and West India
- Peanut oil
E
astern India
- mustard oil
 
Western coast and South India
± Gingelly oilOther oils:
sunflower oil
Vanaspati ghee - Hydrogenated vegetable oil
soybean oil
Desi ghee ± clarified butter (milk solids have been removed
M
ost important or frequent
ly
used spices in Indian cuisines
chilli pepper 
black mustard seed (rai)
cumin (jeera)
turmeric (haldi, manjal)
fenugreek (methi)
asafoetida (hing, perungayam)
ginger (adrak, inji)
coriander (dhania)
garlic (lassan, poondu)
P
opu
l
ar spice mixes
garam masala - powder of five or more dried spices commonly includingcardamom, cinnamon, and clove.
 
Goda masala ± popular sweet spice mix in Maharashtra
 Common use of 
l
eaves:
 
Tejpat
coriander leaf 
fenugreek leaf 
mint leaf 
Curry roots - typical of all South Indian cuisine for the common use of curry leaves.
Cardamom, saffron, nutmeg, and rose petal essences are seasoned in sweetdishes,
 
India1 G
EO
GRA
PH
IC S
ETT
ING AND
E
NVIR
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N
M
E
N
T
 
The Republic of India, Asia's second-largest country after China, occupies the largest part of theSouth Asian subcontinent, which it shares with Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. India'stotal area is 3.3 million square kilometers (1.3 million square miles). Among India's most seriousenvironmental problems are land damage, water shortages, and air and water pollution (about70 percent of India's water is polluted). Even in rural areas, the burning of wood, charcoal, anddung for fuel, coupled with dust from wind erosion during the dry season, creates an air pollutionproblem. Rice, the largest crop, is grown wherever the conditions are suitable.
2
H
IS
TO
RI
E
S AND F
OO
D
Some of India's foods date back five thousand years. The Indus Valley peoples (who settled inwhat is now northern Pakistan) hunted turtles and alligator, as well as wild grains, herbs andplants. Many foods from the Indus period (c. 3000±1500 B.C.) remain common today. Someinclude wheat, barley, rice, tamarind, eggplant and cucumber. The Indus Valley peoples cookedwith oils, ginger, salt, green peppers, and turmeric root, which would be dried and ground into anorange powder .The Aryan-speaking peoples who entered India between 1500 and 1000 B.C used leafyvegetables, lentils, and milk products such as yogurt and ghee (clarified butter). The Aryans alsoused spices such as cumin and coriander. Black pepper was widely used by 400 A.D. TheGreeks brought saffron, while the Chinese introduced tea. The Portuguese and British made redchili, potato and cauliflower popular after 1700 A.D.Perhaps the biggest contributors to India's culinary heritage are the Muslim peoples from Persiaand present-day Turkey, who began arriving in India after 1200.These peoples, known later as the Mughals, ruled much of India between 1500 and early 1800.They saw food as an art, and many Mughal dishes are cooked with as many as twenty-fivespices, as well as rose water, cashews, raisins and almonds.
3 F
OO
DS
O
F
T
H
E
INDIANS
What Indians eat varies by region and religion. Northern Indians eat more flat breads, whilethose from southern India prefer rice. In coastal states, such as Kerala and Bengal, fish dishesare popular. Chicken and mutton (sheep) are eaten more often in mountain and plains regions.

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