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ISTQB Advanced Study Guide - 5

# ISTQB Advanced Study Guide - 5

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The document provides question answers for your preparation for ISTQB Advanced Level Exams. It is a part of a set of 120 top class questions, the answers of which an ISTQB aspirant must know.
The document provides question answers for your preparation for ISTQB Advanced Level Exams. It is a part of a set of 120 top class questions, the answers of which an ISTQB aspirant must know.

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10/18/2014

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ISTQB Advanced Level Certification – Study Guide (Part 5)
Prior to appearing for exam for ISTQB Advanced Level certification, it is wise to quickly brush upyour knowledge by reviewing the following questions – answers that are extremely important fromthe examination point of view.
Q. 41: What is Conditional testing?
In conditional testing, each clause in every condition is forced to take on each of its possiblevalues in combination with those of other clauses. Conditional testing thus subsumes branchtesting. Instrumentation for conditional testing can be accomplished by breaking compoundconditional statements into simple conditions and nesting the resulting
if
statements. Thisreduces the problem of conditional coverage to the simpler problem of branch coverage, enablingalgorithms from the control flow view to be employed.
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>Q. 42: What is Expression testing?
Expression testing requires that every expression assume a variety of values during a test insuch a way that no expression can be replaced by a simpler expression. Expression testingrequires significant runtime support for the instrumentation.
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>Q. 43: What is Domain testing?
The input domain of a program can be partitioned according to which inputs cause each path tobe executed. These partitions are called path domains. Faults that cause an input to beassociated with the wrong path domain are called domain faults. Other faults are calledcomputation faults. The goal of domain testing is to discover domain faults by ensuring that testdata limit the range of undetected faults. This is accomplished by selecting inputs close toboundaries of the path domain. If the boundary is incorrect, these points increase the chance of an infection’s occurring. Domain testing assumes coincidental correctness does not occur, i.e., itassumes a program will fail if an input follows the wrong path.
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>Q. 44: What is Perturbation testing?
Perturbation testing attempts to determine a sufficient set of paths to test for various faults in thecode. Faults are modeled as a vector space, and characterization theorems describe whensufficient paths have been tested to discover both computation and domain errors. Additionalpaths need not be tested if they can not reduce the dimensionality of the error space.
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>Q. 45: What is Fault sensitivity testing?
Foster describes a method for selecting test data that are sensitive to faults. Howden hasformalized this approach in a method called weak mutation testing. Rules for recognizing fault-sensitive data are described for each primitive language construct. Satisfaction of a rule for agiven construct during testing means that all alternate forms of that construct have beendistinguished. This has an obvious advantage over mutation testing - elimination of all mutantswithout generating a single one! Some rules even allow for infinitely many mutants.

<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>

Q. 46: What is Propagation oriented testing?
A testing technique is considered propagation oriented if it seeks to ensure that potentialinfections propagate to failures. This requires selecting paths to test based on their propagationcharacteristics.
Following are the types of propagation oriented testing:
1) Path testing2) Compiler-based testing3) Data flow testing4) Mutation testing
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>Q. 47: What is Path testing?
In path testing, data are selected to ensure that all paths of the program have been executed. Inpractice, of course, such coverage is impossible to achieve, for a variety of reasons. First, anyprogram with an indefinite loop contains infinitely many paths, one for each iteration of the loop.Thus, no finite set of data will execute all paths. The second difficulty is the infeasible pathproblem: it is undecidable whether an arbitrary path in an arbitrary program is executable.Attempting to generate data for such infeasible paths is futile, but it cannot be avoided. Third, it isundecidable whether an arbitrary program will halt for an arbitrary input. It is therefore impossibleto decide whether a path is finite for a given input.In response to these difficulties, several simplifying approaches have been proposed. Infinitelymany paths can be partitioned into a finite set of equivalence classes based on characteristics of the loops. Boundary and interior testing requires executing loops zero times, one time, and, if possible, the maximum number of times. Linear sequence code and jump criteria specify ahierarchy of successively more complex path coverages.Path coverage does not imply condition coverage or expression coverage, since an expressionmay appear on multiple paths but some subexpressions may never assume more than one value.
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>

Q. 48: What is Compiler-based testing?
In a compiler based testing input-output pairs are encoded as a comment in a procedure, as apartial specification of the function to be computed by that procedure. The procedure is thenexecuted for each of the input values and checked for the output values. The test is consideredadequate only if each computational or logical expression in the procedure is determined by thetest; i.e., no expression can be replaced by a simpler expression and still pass the test.Simpler is defined in a way that allows only finitely many substitutions. Thus, as the procedure isexecuted, each possible substitution is evaluated on the data state presented to the expression.Those that do not evaluate the same as the original expression are rejected. Substitutions thatevaluate the same, but ultimately produce failures, are likewise rejected.
<<<<<< =================== >>>>>>Q. 49: What is Data Flow Testing?