Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw
, otherwise known as
(also spelled as
) was one of themythical characters in Jose E. Marco's Maragtas Legend which he composed for the historical fiction
Las antiguasleyendes de la isla de Negros
(The Ancient Legends of the Island of Negros). According to the legend, Datu Kalantiawbecame the chief of Negros(or Aklan) two hundred years after the rule of Datu Bangkaya, one of the tendatus from Borneo. According to the Legend of the Ten Bornean Datus, the datus purchased the island of Panay from the Aetas for agolden salakot. After which, they established a confederation of barangays called
Katilingban it Madya-as
which dividedthe island into three
or provinces, each ruled by a datu ± Aklan (ruled by Datu Bangkaya), Iloilo (ruled by DatuPaiburong) and Antique(ruled by Datu Sumakwel).Two hundred years later, Datu Kalantiaw arrived at the island and proclaimed himself as the successor of Bangkaya as Chief of
and its territories. He adopted the title Rajah and established his capital in Batang(now Batan). As the third chief of Panay, he promulgated the Code of Kalantiaw ± a document listing 18 orders, andproviding harsh punishments for every offenses. The said code was similar to those of the ancient world civilizationincluding the Code of Hammurabi of Babylon, Code of Lygurcus of Sparta, Code of Solon of Ancient Athens and Code of Harmhad of Egypt.Kalantiaw ruled until 1435 when he was killed in a duel with Datu Manduyog, the legitimate chief of Aklan. Soon,the latter ruled the island.
The Code of Kalantiaw
Code of Kalantiaw
was a mythical legal code in the epic story Maragtas. It is said to have been written in1433 by Datu Kalantiaw, a chief on the island of Negros in the Philippines. It was actually written in 1913 by Jose E.Marco as a part of his historical fiction
Las antiguas leyendas de la Isla de Negros
(Spanish, "The Ancient Legends of theIsland of Negros"), which he attributed to a priest named José María Pavón.In 1917, the historian Josué Soncuya wrote about the Code of Kalantiaw in his book
Historia Prehispana deFilipinas
("Prehispanic History of the Philippines") where he moved the location of the Code's origin from Negros tothe Panayprovince of Aklan because he suspected that it may be related to the Ati-atihan festival. Other authorsthroughout the 20th century gave credence to the story and the code.
aws of Kalantiaw
- You shall not kill, neither shall you steal, neither shall you do harm to the aged, lest you incur thedanger of death. All those who infringe this order shall be condemned to death by being drowned in the river, or inboiling water.
- You shall obey. Let all your debts with the headman be met punctually. He who does not obey shallreceive for the first time one hundred lashes. If the debt is large, he shall be condemned to thrust his hand inboiling water thrice. For the second time, he shall be beaten to death.
- Obey you: let no one have women that are very young nor more than he can support; nor be given toexcessive lust. He who does not comply with, obey, and observe this order shall be condemned to swim for threehours for the first time and for the second time, to be beaten to death with sharp thorns.
- Observe and obey; let no one disturb the quiet of the graves. When passing by the caves and treeswhere they are, give respect to them. He who does not observe this shall be killed by ants, or beaten to deathwith thorns.
- You shall obey; he who exchanges for food, let it be always done in accordance with his word. He whodoes not comply, shall be beaten for one hour, he who repeats the offense shall be exposed for one day amongants.
- You shall be obliged to revere sights that are held in respect, such as those of trees of recognizedworth and other sights. He who fails to comply shall pay with one month's work in gold or in honey.
- These shall be put to death; he who kills trees of venerable appearance; who shoot arrows at night atold men and women; he who enters the houses of the headmen without permission; he who kills a shark or astreaked cayman.
- Slavery for a
(a certain period of time) shall be suffered by those who steal away the women of the headmen; by him who keep ill-tempered dogs that bite the headmen; by him who burns the fields of another.
- All these shall be beaten for two days: who sing while traveling by night; kill the Manaul; tear thedocuments belonging to the headmen; are malicious liars; or who mock the dead.
- It is decreed an obligation; that every mother teach secretly to her daughters matters pertaining to lustand prepare them for womanhood; let not men be cruel nor punish their women when they catch them in the actof adultery. Whoever shall disobey shall be killed by being cut to pieces and thrown to the caymans.
- These shall be burned: who by their strength or cunning have mocked at and escaped punishment or who have killed young boys; or try to steal away the women of the elders.
- These shall be drowned: all who interfere with their superiors, or their owners or masters; all thosewho abuse themselves through their lust; those who destroy their
(religious icons) by breaking them or throwing them down.