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Ultra Wideband Slot Antenna with Reconfigurable Notch bands

Ultra Wideband Slot Antenna with Reconfigurable Notch bands

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Published by ijcsis
An Ultra Wideband (UWB) slot antenna with reconfigurable notch bands is presented in this paper. The basic UWB antenna consists of a rectangular slot with triangular structure that acts as a tuning stub with CPW feed. The CPW feed is designed for 50 Ω impedance. The notch band is achieved by inserting a rectangular slot in the ground plane with a effective length of λ/2. The reconfigurable rejection of the bands 3.1 GHz – 3.9 GHz, 4 GHz–5.3 GHz and 4.1 GHz–5.9 GHz are achieved by switching the diodes placed over the slot in the ground plane. The characteristics of the designed structure are investigated by using MoM based electromagnetic solver, IE3D. The return loss (S11) of the antenna is measured and that are comparable with the simulation results. The proposed antenna covers the entire UWB range 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz with reconfiguration. The low profile and simple configuration of the proposed antenna leads to easy fabrication that may be built in any wireless UWB device applications where reconfigurable rejection bands are required. The rejection of WiMax, IEEE 802.11a and HYPERLAN/2 bands can be achieved by using the proposed antenna design.
.
Keywords- coplanar waveguide; notch band; slot antenna; reconfiguration; ultra wideband
An Ultra Wideband (UWB) slot antenna with reconfigurable notch bands is presented in this paper. The basic UWB antenna consists of a rectangular slot with triangular structure that acts as a tuning stub with CPW feed. The CPW feed is designed for 50 Ω impedance. The notch band is achieved by inserting a rectangular slot in the ground plane with a effective length of λ/2. The reconfigurable rejection of the bands 3.1 GHz – 3.9 GHz, 4 GHz–5.3 GHz and 4.1 GHz–5.9 GHz are achieved by switching the diodes placed over the slot in the ground plane. The characteristics of the designed structure are investigated by using MoM based electromagnetic solver, IE3D. The return loss (S11) of the antenna is measured and that are comparable with the simulation results. The proposed antenna covers the entire UWB range 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz with reconfiguration. The low profile and simple configuration of the proposed antenna leads to easy fabrication that may be built in any wireless UWB device applications where reconfigurable rejection bands are required. The rejection of WiMax, IEEE 802.11a and HYPERLAN/2 bands can be achieved by using the proposed antenna design.
.
Keywords- coplanar waveguide; notch band; slot antenna; reconfiguration; ultra wideband

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 06, 2010
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
3
 , 2010
Ultra Wideband Slot Antenna with Reconfigurable Notch bands
J. William*and
 
R.NakkeeranDepartment of Electronics and Communication EngineeringPondicherry Engineering CollegePuducherry, India . 605014.Email id: wills.susan@gmail.com, rnakeeran@pec.edu
*Corresponding author:
wills.susan@gmail.com
 Abstract 
 —AnUltra Wideband (UWB) slot antenna withreconfigurable notch bands is presented in this paper. The basicUWB antenna consists of a rectangular slot with triangularstructure that acts as a tuning stub with CPW feed. The CPW
feed is designed for 50 Ω
impedance. The notch band is achievedby inserting a rectangular slot in the ground plane with a
effective length of λ/2. The
reconfigurable rejection of the bands3.1 GHz 3.9 GHz, 4 GHz–5.3 GHz and 4.1 GHz–5.9 GHz areachieved by switching the diodesplaced over the slot in theground plane. The characteristics of the designed structure areinvestigated by using MoM based electromagnetic solver, IE3D.The return loss (S
11
) of the antenna is measured and that arecomparable with the simulation results.The proposed antennacovers the entire UWB range 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz withreconfiguration. The low profile and simple configuration of theproposed antenna leads to easy fabrication that may be built inany wireless UWB device applications where reconfigurablerejection bands are required. The rejection of WiMax, IEEE802.11a and HYPERLAN/2 bands can be achieved by using theproposed antenna design.
Keywords-
coplanar waveguide;notch band; slot antenna;reconfiguration;ultra wideband 
I.I
 NTRODUCTION
In the year 2002, Federal Communications Commission(FCC) released the unlicensed UWB spectrum 3.1 GHz to 10.6GHz for the commercial purposes. After the release of UWB, itgains much attention by the researchers due to its inherent properties of low power consumption, high data rate andsimple configuration [1]. With the rapid developments of suchUWB systems, a lot of attention is being given for designingthe UWB antennas. Designingan antenna to operate in theUWB band is quiet challenging one because it has to satisfy therequirements such as ultra wide impedance bandwidth, omnidirectional radiation pattern, constant gain, high radiationefficiency, constant group delay, low profile,easymanufacturingetc[2]. Interestingly the planar slot antennaswith CPW fed posses the above said features with simplestructure, less radiation loss, less dispersion and easyintegration of monolithic microwave integrated circuits(MMIC) [3].
Due
to inherent nature of UWB system sharingthesame spectrum with other systems. The interference fromother system should be considered when you design a UWBsystem. For example, the other wireless communicationsystems such as WiMax (3.3 GHz 3.7 GHz), IEEE 802.11a(5.15 GHz -5.35 GHz and 5.725 GHz –5.825 GHz) andHYPERLAN/2(5.15 GHz -5.35 GHz and 5.47 GHz – 5.825 GHz) which are also operated in the portion of UWB band.Therefore, the UWBantenna design could play animportant role when interference with other wirelessapplicationssuch as WiMax, IEEE 802.11a and HYPERLAN/2systems which are also coexisting with UWB band (3.1 GHz – 10.6GHz), which degrades the UWB system performance.Therefore, a UWB antenna having reconfigurable frequency bandnotchcharacteristics is enviable.To mitigate the above electromagnetic interference fromnearby communication systems many antenna designs have been proposed in the literature[4-13].Many techniquesalsoused to introduce notch band for rejecting the interference inthe UWB slot antennas. It is done either by inserting half wavelength slits, stripes in the tuning stub [14], or insertingstub in the aperture connected to the ground planes [15], or inserting square ring resonator in the tuning stub [16], or inserting ‘L’branches in the ground plane [17], or withcomplementary split ring resonator [18], or inserting strip in theslot [19]
.
All the above methods are used for rejecting a fixed bandof frequencies.Butto effectivelyutilize the UWBspectrum and to improve theperformance of the UWB system,it is desirable to design the UWB antenna with reconfigurablenotch band. It will help to minimize the interference betweenthe systems and to improve the performance of the UWBsystems. In general, reconfiguration are popular in antennaengineering for their frequency agility, bandwidth enhancementand polarization diversity [20-23]. In [24] RF MEMS switchesare used for the reconfigurabilty of rejection band between thefrequencies 5 GHz to 6 GHz. In this paper a new method is proposed to obtain the reconfiguration in the frequency notch bands for WiMax, WLAN 802.11a and HYPERLAN/2 systems by making ‘on’ and ‘off’ the diodes placed over the slot that isintroduced on the ground plane. This intern changes the tuninglength of the slot, which is responsible for the desiredfrequency notch band. Through our simulation it is also foundthat the desired frequency notch band can be obtained byinserting slot in the tuning stub with appropriate length rather than on the ground plane. However this paper mainly focuses
137http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
3
 , 2010
on reconfigurable notch band through the introduction of slot inthe ground plane. The simulation software used for thisanalysis is IE3D [25].The paper is organized as follows:Section II brings out the geometry of the antenna. In sectionIII, simulation results and analysis are presented. Obtainedexperimental results are given in Section IV. Section IVconcludes the work.
Fig. 1 Geometry of the proposed slot antennawith biasing circuit.
II.A
 NTENNA
G
EOMETRY
The structure of the antenna is shown in Fig 1. The antennaconsists of rectangular slot with width ‘W
1
’ and length ‘L
1
’.The tuning stub comprises a triangular patch with height ‘H’.The distance between the tuning stub and feed line is ‘d’, ‘W’and ‘L’ are the overall width and length of the antennarespectively. In this study, the dielectric substance (FR4) withthickness of 1.6 mm with relative permittivity of 4.4 is chosenas substrate to facilitate printed circuit board integration. TheCPW feed is designed for 
50 Ω characteristic impedance with
fixed 2.4 mm feed line width and 0.5 mm ground gap. Slits areintroduced to avoid the short circuit between the ground planes. Fast switching diode LL4148 is used as a switchingdevice. The proposed antenna is designed tocover the entireUWB band with reconfiguration capability. The placement of the diodes ‘L
d
are desired by the effective wavelength
λ 
eff 
The effective wavelength of the slot is, 
eff 
1, (1)2
eff nef
c f 
   
The placement of the diodes ‘L
d
(2)2
nef
c L f 
 
where ‘f 
n
’ is the centre frequency of the notch band. The placement of the diodes is desired by the effective wavelengthfor the different notch frequencies.III.S
IMULATED
ESULTS AND
A
 NALYSIS
The analysis and performance of the proposed antennaisexplored by usingIE3Dfor the better impedance matching.The detailed parametric analysis of the UWB antenna iscarried out and presented in our paper [26]. In order toevaluate the performance of the proposed antenna withreconfigurable slot in the ground plane, the optimal parameter values of the antenna(without slot) suggested in thatpaper areconsidered. The final optimal parameter values of the antennaare listed in the Table 1.However to study the impact of theslot, theslot length ‘L
2
’ and width ‘W
2
’ are varied by keepingone of them as constant. In the simulation switching diodeswere simulated as capacitor for the ‘Off’ state and as a resistor in the ‘On’ state. The current distribution, gain and groupdelay are also studied. The simulated return loss, withdifferent states of the diode are shown in Fig. 2, clearlyindicate that thenotch frequency and notch bandwidth isvaried when the slot length is varied.
TABLE I. O
PTIMAL
P
ARAMETER 
V
ALUES OF THE
A
 NTENNA
ParameterDescriptionOptimalValue
LLength of the antenna28 mmWWidth of the antenna21 mmL
1
Length of the slot15 mmW
1
Width of the slot16.8 mmdFeed gap distance1.6 mmHHeight of the patch9.3 mmFig. 2 Simulated response curves for different biasing condition.
138http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
3
 , 2010
 A.Effect of Slot in the Ground Plane
The length of the ground slot is adjusted by switching thediodes placed appropriately over the slot. The switchingdiodes ‘D
1
’ and ‘D
2
’ are placed over the slot along the ground plane. The Table 2 shows the states of the diode switches andnotch frequency with notch band width.
TABLE II. D
ESCRIPTION OF
S
WITCHING OF THE
D
IODES
D
1
D
2
Notch Freq. (GHz) Notch band
Off Off 3.6 GHz3.1-3.9 GHzOff On 5.1 GHz4 –5.3 GHzOn Off 5.6 GHz4.1-5.9 GHz
When both diodes are in open state the effective slotlength is longer to achieve the notch frequency at 3.6 GHzwith frequency notch band of 3.1 GHz to 3.9 GHz, which isthe WIMAX band of frequency. When D
1
is ‘Off’ and D
2
is‘On’ the length of the slot is tuned to eliminate the band of 4 GHz to 5.3 GHz with notch center frequency of 5.1 GHzwhich covers the lower band of IEEE 802.11a. When D
1
is‘On’ and D
2
is ‘Off’ the effective wavelength of the slot isadjusted such that to eliminate the upper band of IEEE802.11a with a notch frequency of 5.6 GHz with the notchfrequency band of 4.1 GHz to 5.9 GHz.
 B.Simulated Current Distribuition
Thesimulated current distribution at different notchfrequencies according to the switching condition of the diodesis presented in Fig.3,it is witnessed from the figure, the currentdistribution around the radiation slot is disturbed by theintroduction of ground slot, which is responsible for the notchin the frequency band.If the slot length is longer the destructiveinterference with the main radiating slot is high which causesthe notching in that band is good. When the ground slot lengthis decreased, the current distribution of the radiating slot isdisturbed by the tuning slot is less effective compared with thelonger slot size.
(a) (b) (c)Fig. 3Simulated current distribution for different switching conditions of diodes. a) ‘D
1
and ‘D
2
’ ‘Off’ b) ‘D
1
’ ‘On’ and ‘D
2
’ ‘Off’’ c) ‘D
1
’ ‘Off’ and‘D
2
’ ‘On’
C.Gain
The computed gain of the proposed UWB antenna for different tuning lengths of the slot in the ground planeandwithout slotis compared in Figure 4.
Fig. 4Simulated gain for different biasing conditions of diodes.
It is observed that there isa gain variation at the notchedfrequencies when the length of the slot is tuned.which is-7.5dBi for both diodes are ‘off’ state and 0.4 dBi when D
1
is‘Off’ and D
2
is ‘On’.Where as it is 0.6dBi for D
1
is ‘OnandD
2
is ‘Off’. The antenna withoutslot and the gain varies from2 dBi to 6 dBi across the UWB spectrum.
 D.Radiation pattern
The radiation pattern for the E plane and H plane atfrequencies 3.4 GHz, 5.2 GHz and 5.6 GHz are simulated for all the three cases of diode states are compared and displayedin Fig.5, which disclose that the directivity gain of theradiation pattern is reduced at the notch frequencies withoutaffecting the shape of the radiation pattern. In the E plane, it is bidirectional pattern and in H plane, it is omni directional pattern.
(a) 3.4 GHz(b) 5.2 GHz
139http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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