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A Study Of Various Load Balancing Techniques In Internet

A Study Of Various Load Balancing Techniques In Internet

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Published by ijcsis
One of the most important applications of traffic engineering is load balancing. Successful implementation of load balancing depends on the underlying routing protocol that provides connectivity through the Internet by determining the routes used by traffic flows. But the load-balancing problem is not yet solved completely; new applications and architectures are required to meet the existing or incoming fastest Internet world. And, for greatest impact, these new capabilities must be delivered in toolkits that are robust, easy-to-use, and applicable to a wide range of applications. For balancing traffic in internet, packets should be reorder, reordering also having a problem for flows in internet. In Internet, unresponsive flows easily occupy the limited buffers, there by reducing the Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper, various techniques that are adopted for load balancing in Internet are analyzed.
Keywords: Traffic engineering, Load Balancing, Internet Services, unresponsive flows, QOS,
Buffer, Traffic splitting and Router.
One of the most important applications of traffic engineering is load balancing. Successful implementation of load balancing depends on the underlying routing protocol that provides connectivity through the Internet by determining the routes used by traffic flows. But the load-balancing problem is not yet solved completely; new applications and architectures are required to meet the existing or incoming fastest Internet world. And, for greatest impact, these new capabilities must be delivered in toolkits that are robust, easy-to-use, and applicable to a wide range of applications. For balancing traffic in internet, packets should be reorder, reordering also having a problem for flows in internet. In Internet, unresponsive flows easily occupy the limited buffers, there by reducing the Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper, various techniques that are adopted for load balancing in Internet are analyzed.
Keywords: Traffic engineering, Load Balancing, Internet Services, unresponsive flows, QOS,
Buffer, Traffic splitting and Router.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jul 06, 2010
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A STUDY OF VARIOUS LOAD BALANCING TECHNIQUES ININTERNET
M.Azath
1
, Dr.R.S.D.Wahida banu
2
,
1
Research Scholar, Anna University, Coimbatore.
1
mailmeazath@gmail.com 
2
Research Supervisor, Anna University, Coimbatore.
2
drwahidabanu@gmail.com 
 Abstract
One of the most important applications of traffic engineering is load balancing.Successful implementation of load balancingdepends on the underlying routing protocolthat provides connectivity through theInternet by determining the routes used bytraffic flows. But the load-balancingproblem is not yet solved completely; newapplications and architectures are required tomeet the existing or incoming fastestInternet world. And, for greatest impact,these new capabilities must be delivered intoolkits that are robust, easy-to-use, andapplicable to a wide range of applications.For balancing traffic in internet, packetsshould be reorder, reordering also having aproblem for flows in internet. In Internet,unresponsive flows easily occupy thelimited buffers, there by reducing theQuality of Service (QoS). In this paper,various techniques that are adopted for loadbalancing in Internet are analyzed.
Keywords:
Traffic engineering, Load Balancing,Internet Services, unresponsive flows, QOS,Buffer, Traffic splitting and Router.
1. Introduction
Traffic engineering refers to theperformance optimization of operationalnetworks. On one hand, traffic offeredbetween origin and destination nodes loadsthe network and on the other hand, thistraffic has to be carried in the network insuch a way that performance objectives arefulfilled. In computer networking, loadbalancing is a technique to spread work between two or more computers, network links, CPUs, hard drives, or other resources,in order to get optimal resource utilization,throughput, or response time.One of the most common applications of load balancing is to provide a single Internetservice from multiple servers, sometimesknown as a server farm. Commonly loadbalanced systems include popular web sites,large Internet Relay Chat networks, highbandwidth File Transfer Protocol sites,NNTP servers and DNS servers.The idea of load balancing is to move trafficfrom congested links to other parts of thenetwork in a well-controlled way. Trafficengineering seeks to effectively balancetraffic load throughout existing networks,thus achieving QoS demands andminimizing typical costs of adding hardwareand software implementations, common tonetwork engineering. When dealing withreal-world cases of load balancing, bothnetwork and traffic engineering is generalpurpose tools used throughout all steps of animplementation [12].
2. Motivation
Load balancers are an integral part of today'sWeb infrastructure. They're also complexand under-documented pieces of hardware.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010149http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Today's Web sites are complex beasts.Every component must work together tocreate a site that is greater than the sum of its parts.Figure 1: Traffic flow for a load balancerThe Internet is connected to the routers,which pass traffic through a firewall to theload balancers, which distribute the traffic tothe Web servers, which pass information tothe application server bone, and theapplication server bone is connected to thedatabase server bone. We get the picture. If one component or piece of the process fails,it can take down the entire site.Load balancers are also in the direct path of all traffic to a particular Web site. Bylooking at Figure 2 below, we can see that if the load balancer stops working, the entiresite stops working. This critical position inthe infrastructure can make it appear asthough the load balancer is the problem,even in cases where it is not (such as afirewall issue, a back-end database problem,someone tripping over a cable, etc.). Unlikea broken or malfunctioning Web server, amiss configured or malfunctioning loadbalancer will result in a dead-to-the-worldsite. This is why a firewall is often a suspect,too, but to a lesser degree since it isgenerally a simpler device than loadbalancers [1].Figure 2: Load Balancer implementation
3. Needs of load balancing
Load balancing is common in ISP networks.If the traffic demands are known, the loadbalancing can be formulated as anoptimization problem. However, knowledgeof traffic demands is often lacking. Recenttrends in load balancing points towarddynamic protocols [13]. These protocolsmap the traffic of router onto multiple pathsand adapt the share of each path in real-timeto avoid hot-spots and cope with failures.Dynamic load balancing needs schemes thatsplit traffic across multiple paths at a finegranularity.Since the power of any server is finite, aweb application must be able to run onmultiple servers to accept an ever increasingnumber of users. This is called scaling.Scalability is not really a problem forintranet applications since the number of users has little chances to increase.However, on internet portals, the loadcontinuously increases with the availabilityof broadband Internet accesses. The site'smaintainer has to find ways to spread the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010150http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
load on several servers, either via internalmechanisms included in the applicationserver, via external components, or viaarchitectural redesign.Further complication increases due tovarious factors such as:
 
Sizes of objects might not be thesame.
 
Object IDs might not be chosen atrandom.
 
Heterogeneity in the capabilities of nodes.
4. Types of load balancing and itsapproaches
Load balancing algorithms can be classifiedinto three main classes: static algorithms,dynamic algorithms, and adaptivealgorithms. Static algorithms decide how todistribute the workload according a priorknowledge of the problem and the systemcharacteristics. Dynamic algorithms usestate information to make decisions duringprogram execution. Finally, Adaptivealgorithms are a special case of dynamicalgorithms. They dynamically change itsparameters in order to adapt its behavior tothe load balancing requirements [10].As though there are three main algorithmsfor load balancing, there are different loadbalancing approaches available. They are:1. Client-side load balancing: Client-sideload balancing is not a normal practice, butit is indeed possible. For some times,Netscape incorporated a simple balancingalgorithm in their Navigator browser,making it choose a random Netscape web-server when visiting www.netscape.com.[2].2. Core Internet routing uses protocols andagreements that allow for automated loadbalancing and fail-over mechanisms. Theseare commonly based on the Border GatewayProtocol, used for data-exchange betweenlarge Internet operators.3. DNS-based load balancing is a popularway of distributing traffic amongst a set of Internet addresses by returning a list of active addresses to the requesting client.These addresses can point to a set of serversor even a set of geographically separatesites.4. Sites can connect to the net throughseveral links, a practice known as multi-homing. This enables both incoming andoutgoing load balancing, in addition to theincreased redundancy.5. Dispatcher-based load balancing is usedwithin a site to balance load between a set of real servers. Generally, the dispatcherassumes a virtual address for a service andreceives requests which it then redirects toan appropriate server based on givencriteria.6. The real servers can again operate someform of balancing mechanism to decidewhether to handle the request or redirect it toa more suitable server or site.7. Content servers could access back-endservers – typically running databases andlow-level services – in a load-balancedfashion.8. Back-end servers could also incorporatebalancing amongst themselves to avoidover-utilization.When talking about varying levels
 
of loadbalancing, it is fair to identify the level to beproportional to the distance from the contentserved – long distance equals high level, andvice versa. In an informal manner, we candesignate steps 1through 4 in the figure ashigh-levels, and steps 5 through 8 as low-levels of load balancing [12].
5. Adopted techniques
There are various papers which explainabout the load balancing in Internet. Each of 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010151http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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