some of the sounds into a verbal model and organizessome of the images into a pictorial model. In the ﬁnal col-umn—Long-Term Memory—the learner can activate priorknowledge to be integrated with the verbal and pictorialmodels in working memory and can store the resultingknowledge in long-term memory.
involve attendingto relevant incoming material entering the ears and eyes,respectively.
in-volve building coherent cognitive structures for the verbalmaterial and the pictorial material, respectively.
refers to building appropriate connections between the ver-bal and pictorial representations in working memory aswell as relevant prior knowledge activated from long-termmemory.
The Science of Instruction
What is instruction?
In attempting to apply the science of learning, a central challenge of psychology and educationis the development of a science of instruction aimed at un-derstanding how to help people learn. Instruction refers tothe instructor’s manipulations of the environment that areintended to foster changes in knowledge in the learner. Thescience of instruction is concerned with how to presentmaterial in ways that prime appropriate cognitive process-ing during learning.
What is a learning objective?
If learning is a change inthe learner’s knowledge that is due to experience, then aﬁrst step in instructional design is to clearly describe theintended change in knowledge (Anderson et al., 2001). Aninstructional objective is a clear description of the intendedlearning outcome.
What is a learning outcome?
A learning outcome refersto the change in the learner’s knowledge as a result of in-struction. “Knowing what students know” (Pellegrino, Chu-dowsky, & Glaser, 2001, p. 1) is a basic challenge of thescience of educational measurement. Two classic ways tomeasure learning outcomes are retention tests, which focuson remembering, and transfer tests, which focus on under-standing. In a retention test, the learner is asked to recall orrecognize parts of the presented material, as reﬂected in theitem “Please write down everything you can rememberfrom the lesson you just received.” In a transfer test, thelearner is asked to evaluate or use what was presented in anew situation, such as in the item “Please tell how youwould improve the reliability of the device you just readabout.”
How does instruction work?
The central issue in thescience of instruction concerns how to help people learn.Instruction works by priming appropriate cognitive pro-cessing in the learner during learning, that is, by guidingthe learner’s selecting of relevant material, organizing of the material into a coherent cognitive representation, andintegrating of the representation with other relevantknowledge. The central challenge of instructional designis how to encourage learners to engage in appropriatecognitive processing during learning while not overload-ing the processing capacity of the verbal or pictorialchannel.Key elements in the science of instruction are (a) reduc-ing extraneous processing—cognitive processing that doesnot support the instructional goal and is attributable to con-fusing instructional design; (b) managing essential process-ing—cognitive processing needed to mentally represent theincoming material and that is attributable to the complexityof the material; and (c) fostering generative processing—cognitive processing aimed at making sense of the incom-ing material, including organizing it and integrating it withprior knowledge (Mayer, 2005; Sweller, 1999).
Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
WORKING MEMORYPictorialModelVerbalModelPicturesWordsintegratingLONG-TERMMEMORYselectingimagesselectingwordsorganizingimagesorganizingwordsSENSORYMEMORYEarsEyesPrior Knowledge