Response-reinforcement essentially indicates that “the longer thedelay between the response and the reinforcement, the lesseffective the reinforcement will be in increasing the futurefrequency of the reinforced behavior”
(Michael, 2004, p. 30).
To bridge the gap between an organism emitting a targetbehavior and the presentation of reinforcement, the field of animalresearch has experienced much success using auditory stimuli asconditioned reinforcers (i.e., clicker training)
(Pryor, Hagg, & O’Reilly, 1969;Ferguson & Rosales-Ruiz, 2001; Fjellanger, Andersen, & McLean, 2002; Pryor, 1999, 2005).
Teaching by Acoustical Guidance (TAG) represents an extension ofclicker training that uses an auditory marker (e.g., click, chirp, ping,and trill sounds) to bridge the gap between the desired responseand the presentation of reinforcement to assist in the learning ofnew behaviors in humans
(Ueda, 2006; Gutierrez, 2007; Maendler, Wasano, 2008;Eshleman & Cihon, 2009; Vargas, 2009).
TAG can provide truly immediate consequences following a givenmovement.