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Gender Stereotyping of Women in Contemporary Magazine Advertisements by Pariya Sripakdeevong (Will) (M.I.T. Psychology of Gender and Race)

Gender Stereotyping of Women in Contemporary Magazine Advertisements by Pariya Sripakdeevong (Will) (M.I.T. Psychology of Gender and Race)

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Published by weilly
This paper is a research paper for the psychology of gender and race course at M.I.T.

This paper will examine the ways in which women are portrayed in contemporary magazine ads, the process by which women internalize these media portrayal, and the negative consequences that arise from such internalization. Furthermore, the cross-cultural elements of Western gender stereotypes in magazine ads conventions will be explored through the example of South Korean women. Findings suggest that magazine ads depict women in sexualized ways and encourage them to put beauty as their primary goals. Internalization of these gender-stereotyping portrayals may lead to serious negative consequences in various perspectives of women’s lives. Moreover, these trends are not confined to United States. Thus, the last section will discuss and evaluate current intervention methods and suggest future research directions.
This paper is a research paper for the psychology of gender and race course at M.I.T.

This paper will examine the ways in which women are portrayed in contemporary magazine ads, the process by which women internalize these media portrayal, and the negative consequences that arise from such internalization. Furthermore, the cross-cultural elements of Western gender stereotypes in magazine ads conventions will be explored through the example of South Korean women. Findings suggest that magazine ads depict women in sexualized ways and encourage them to put beauty as their primary goals. Internalization of these gender-stereotyping portrayals may lead to serious negative consequences in various perspectives of women’s lives. Moreover, these trends are not confined to United States. Thus, the last section will discuss and evaluate current intervention methods and suggest future research directions.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: weilly on Jul 07, 2010
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10/29/2013

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 Exaggerated Portrayal of Sexualized Beauty Ideal, Internalization of Gender Stereotypes, Consequences on Women’s lives, Cross-Cultural Examination of South Korean Women, and Educational Interventions
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Gender Stereotyping of Women in Contemporary MagazineAdvertisements
Pariya Sripakdeevong (Will)
 Psychology of Gender & RaceResearch Paper Aril 29 2010
 
Gender Stereotyping of Women in Contemporary Magazine Advertisements 1
INTRODUCTION
The ways women are depicted in media reflect and also influence feminine values andexpectations of a particular society. Magazine advertisements are a conventional and influentialmedia source for women; a study reports 47% of women in United States having read a magazine onthe previous day (D. Roberts et al. 2005)
1
. Thus, magazine ads “shape the status and roles of women…and influence the values and attitudes of the society as a whole” (Hovland et al., 2005; p.887)
2
. However, the portrayals of gender roles in magazine ads are often exaggerated. AlbertBandura commented on the “pervasive cultural modeling of gender roles” that depicts women as being dependent and confined to domestic roles, although these representations do not actually “fitthe common vocations…in real life”(Bussey & Bandura, 1999; p.37)
3
. Additionally, stereotypicalgender conventions in magazines are becoming increasingly pervasive and increasingly global withtoday’s advancement in communication technology. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the rolemagazine ads play in perpetuating the exaggerated portrayal of women in stereotypical ways, inorder to understand the well being of women across the world.This paper will examine the ways in which women are portrayed in contemporary magazineads, the process by which women internalize these media portrayal, and the negative consequencesthat arise from such internalization. Furthermore, the cross-cultural elements of Western gender stereotypes in magazine ads conventions will be explored through the example of South Koreanwomen. Findings suggest that magazine ads depict women in sexualized ways and encourage themto put beauty as their primary goals. Internalization of these gender-stereotyping portrayals may leadto serious negative consequences in various perspectives of women’s lives. Moreover, these trendsare not confined to United States. Thus, the last section will discuss and evaluate current interventionmethods and suggest future research directions.
 
2 Gender Stereotyping of Women in Contemporary Magazine Advertisements
DISCUSSION
 
I. Gender Stereotyping in Modern Magazine Advertisements
Messages in magazine advertisements emphasize gender relation as power relations, withfemale being less powerful (Hare-Mustin & Marecek, 1988)
4
. In a classic magazine content analysisstudy, Erving Goffman demonstrated that women are exclusively depicted as mothers, as childlike,or as sex objects, which represent the traditional female roles (Goffman, 1979)
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. However, there have been criticisms of the study’s applicability for contemporary magazines, since the study wasconducted during the 1970s. Goffman classified depictions of women in magazines into categories
a
 that all suggest submissive role of women that may not be present in modern times.This raises the question of whether depictions of modern women are free from gender stereotypes. Are women now portrayed objectively and equally to men? Research suggests thatwomen are increasingly portrayed as independent from stereotypical gender roles. For example, acontent analysis of US magazines from 1979 to 2000 indicated decrease in portrayal of femalemodels lowering themselves physically
 b
(
from 22.2% to 7.5%). The study also found that advertisersare increasingly promoting products more broadly for both women and men (eg. power tools for women and cosmetics to men) (Hovland et al., 2005)
2
. Moreover, Chung (1990)
6
suggested adramatic increase in depiction of women having freedom from traditional roles (i.e. having a career and enjoying their own social activities). Consequently, a later replication of Goffman (1979)
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addedan ‘Independence/Self-assurance’
c
category in women’s magazine content analysis (Kang, 1997)
7
.
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a
Six categories: relative size, feminine touch, function ranking, family scenes, ritualization of subordination, andlicensed withdrawal
 b
A sub-category of Goffman (1979)
5
’s ritualization of subordination category, defined by person bowing down or  bending body to show bashfulness or subordination
c
Person appears independent and self-assured explicitly or implicitly

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