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Schematic Illustration Literature Romantic Realism

Schematic Illustration Literature Romantic Realism

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Enlightenment, Romanticism and Realism (XVIII and XIX)
Philip IV Philip V War II succession Carlos III Carlos Fernando Carlos IV VI

Napoleonic War
Fernando VII
Regency of Maria Cristina de Borbon y de Espartero
Elizabeth II

Revolution 68
Amadeo I
Alfonso XII

First Republic
Regency of Maria Cristina of Hapsburg
1650 1700 1750

Survival in Spain of the Baroque style

1800 1810 1820 1830
The French Revolution (1789) is the seed of Romanticism, the end of Absolutism a
nd the triumph of the. liberty and the pursuit of equality and fraternity. In Fr
ance, the ambitious Revolution soon result in chaos, after which arise figure of
Napoleon. However, Romantic literature (starting in Germany and England) inheri
ts this idealism, and that freedom for the writer, who released their passions a
nd feelings by breaking with the traditional art of the eighteenth century ratio
nalist. . 1933: Elizabeth II sets up a parliamentary regime. Returning exiles fr
om the reign of Fernando VII, many intellectuals accused of "Francophile" and ma
de contact with European Romanticism. The new political system also allows the e
xplosion

1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890

The eighteenth century is the century of the Enlightenment or "lights." After th
e baroque era, emerged, especially after 1750, a "fever" reforms at all levels b
ased on the idea that progress and reason can lead man to happiness. The absolut
e monarchies are trying to improve the living conditions of the people (enlighte
ned despotism). The great philosophers of the eighteenth defend rationalism, whi
ch favors the application of scientific and technical development. Born newspape
rs and increases the level of literacy. In general, it is a time when we are ove
rcoming the deep crisis of the seventeenth century. From the artistic point of v
iew, it becomes the formal balance and harmony, and it looks as models the great
classical authors. However, creativity and inspiration are sacrificed in favor
of didactic literature. The influence of the baroque aesthetic is still very lar
ge and the Enlightenment and neoclassical aesthetics are slow to materialize.
There is hardly novelistic prose and lyric poetry just grows, with the exception
of Juan Meléndez Valdés (1754-1817). Yes grown fables in verse, with Iriarte an
d Samaniego. The birth of a new genus, essay, presentation on various topics tha

t aim to spread the ideas of the Enlightenment and criticize the bad habits or s
uperstitions.

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION is the seed of Realism. The industrialization and scientif ic and technical progress rapidly transformed the world. Journalism and politics take on a special prominence. Surge socialism, Marxism, anarchism, republicanis m ... new ideologies that try to respond to new problems. The realism makes the faithful observation of society its literary goal.

ROMANTIC PROSE
Historical novels. Articles customs. Traditionalists of satirical stories. Strip
social services, from a subjective point of view, deeply pessimistic.
Mariano José de Larra (18,091,837). Novelist and playwright, is known for his ma
ny articles of customs (Come back tomorrow, ...). The old Castilian Its language
is clear and direct, like a good journalist who was, but his articles are very
ironic and sarcastic.

REALISTIC FIRST BATCH. Romantic elements survive. It matters more sentimental th
at the analysis of social or psychological conflict. But the situations are real
istic and the language simplified.
Fernán Caballero (1796-1877) Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833-1891): The Three-Cor
nered Hat. Juan Valera (1824-1905): Pepita Jiménez and Juanita.

SECOND BATCH REALISTIC. The purest realism: close observation of reality, purpos e of political and social criticism, simple and sober style, credibility, tenden cy to collective character, omniscient narrator, detailed descriptions, believab le dialogue that has no place in the colloquial language, interior monologues. . .José María Pereda (1833-1906). His realism focuses on the critique of the urban,

bourgeois, very degraded and unnatural. Benito Perez Galdos (1843-1920). One of the great European realists. Liberal and republican, he combined his literary w ork with politics. It was well known in his time, and a prolific novelist. Its N ational episodes reconstructed so fictionalized the story of nineteenth-century Spain. His most outstanding novel is Fortuna y Jacinta, Madrid showing its age t hrough the story of two women, poor and rich, shared his love of Juanito Santa C ruz, the "skull" that will break your heart both. Leopoldo Alas Clarín (1852-190 1).€It is closer to the prototype of intellectual writer. Journalist and literar y critic, wrote only two novels and numerous short stories, some satirical. The judge's wife is probably the masterpiece of Spanish Realism. It is a portrait of a provincial society monotonous, hypocritical, petty, through the story of Ana Ozores, a young woman married to the Regent, an older man. It is cold and hypocr itical love canon. Anna, who tries to fight his impulses with a false spirituali ty, is seduced by Alvaro Mesia. Adultery is discovered, Mesia Regent kills in a duel and Ana is humiliated and alone.

Final of the press and
essay literature ..

ROMANTIC POETRY
Romantic poetry is characterized by the exaltation of one's feelings and privacy
, which is the naked, releasing an exaggerated, irrational passion, an idealism
that often leads to frustration or loneliness, low everyday scenarios and turbul
ent. The language is grand and sonorous, looks for the impact on the reader. Lon
g poems are preferred, with narrative parts, with lyrics arranged freely. Espron
ceda Joseph (1808-1842)

POETIC PURIFICATION most typically romantic elements disappear. The new poetry i s simpler and less grandiose, more intimate and less exaggerated passions, with shorter lines and rhymes assonants, with a slower pace, more lyrical, less super

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