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Stages of the statistical method

# Stages of the statistical method

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11/27/2013

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National Training Service - SENA CENTRO AGRO-INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL TOURISM AND TECHNOLOGICAL Guaviare TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF INF ORMATION SYSTEMS

Guaviare

STAGES OF STATISTICAL METHODS The statistical method, part of the observation of a phenomenon, and as you can not always maintain the same predetermined conditi ons or will the researcher, let it operate freely, but different observations ar e recorded and analyzed its variations. For the planning of an investigation, as a rule, follow the following steps: 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1. 11 THE PROBLEM. Setting objectives. Formulation of the hypothesis. Definition of the observation unit and the unit of measurement. Determination of the populati on and sample. Collection. Critics, classification and management. Tab. Presenta tion. Analysis. Publication.

PROBLEM 1.1 Addressing an investigation must be clearly defined what is to be in vestigated and why they intend to study something. That is, it must establish a clear definition, concrete and intelligible on or phenomena under investigation, to which must be taken into account, inter alia, the review of the literature, to see their accessibility and view the results obtained by similar studies, sub ject our basic propositions to logical analysis, ie to do a historical and theor etical location of the problem. 1.2 SETTING GOALS then be clear what is intended to investigate, we should budget to where we want to, in other words, we must e stablish what our goals and objectives. These should be raised so that there is no room for confusion or ambiguity and must also establish differentiation betwe en short, medium and long term as well as between general and specific objective s. 1.3 FORMULATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS A hypothesis is primarily a tentative expla nation of the facts under consideration, and formulation depends on the knowledg e that researchers have on the population studied. A statistical hypothesis must be capable of Docimo, that is, it must be possible to test for acceptance or re jection.

National Training Service - SENA CENTRO AGRO-INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL TOURISM AND TECHNOLOGICAL Guaviare TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF INF ORMATION SYSTEMS

Guaviare

A hypothesis is formulated for a parameter (mean, proportion, variance, etc..), In order to reject it, is called null hypothesis and is denoted by Ho, contrary to his hypothesis is called the alternative hypothesis (H1). 1.4 Definition of U NIT OF OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT UNIT Observation Unit, meaning each of the co nstituent elements of the study population must be defined previously, highlight ing all its features, for, after all, is to them to which will make the measurem ent. The observation unit may consist of one or more individuals or objects and respectively called simple or complex. The criterion for the unit of measurement must be previously defined and unified the whole research team. If these are me asures of length, volume, weight, etc.., Which unit should be established under the comments will be taken either in feet, inches, pounds, kilograms, etc. Assoc iated with the unit of measure, the criteria should be established on the condit ions under which they must make the decision information. 1.5 DETERMINATION OF T HE POPULATION AND SAMPLE Statistically, the population is defined as a set of in dividuals or objects that have one or several common characteristics. This defin ition does not refer only to living creatures, a population can be formed by the inhabitants of a country or a pond fish, as well as commercial establishments o f a neighborhood or housing units in a city. There from the point of view of han dling finite and infinite populations. Here the term infinite is not being taken with the semantic rigor of the word, for example, fish in a pond are a finite s et, however, in statistical terms, can be considered as infinite. Sample is a su

bset of the population to which the measurement was made in order to study the p roperties of the whole as obtained. In practice, studying each and every one of the elements of the population is not desirable, either by the limited availabil ity of resources, by the homogeneity of its elements, because sometimes it is ne cessary to destroy what is being measured, because too large the number of compo nents or can not be controlled;Âtherefore be referred to the analysis of the el ements of a sample to make inferences about the total population. There are seve ral methods to calculate the sample size and also to take the elements that comp ose it, but it is the objective of this ongoing study. We will say only that the sample should be representative of the population and its elements chosen at ra ndom to ensure the objectivity of the investigation. ..

National Training Service - SENA CENTRO AGRO-INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL TOURISM AND TECHNOLOGICAL Guaviare TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF INF ORMATION SYSTEMS

Guaviare

1.6 COLLECTION One of the most important stages of the research is the collectio n of information, which has to go, unless you have experience with similar sampl es of one or several pilot samples which will be validated questionnaires and ob tain an approximation of the variability of the population, in order to calculat e the exact size of the sample leading to an estimate of the accuracy parameters established. The establishment of the sources and channels of information as we ll as the number and complexity of the questions, according to the objectives of the research are decisions to be taken taking into account the availability of financial resources, human and time the limitations are within the geographical area, the degree of development, lack of technique, etc.. It is, then, to discov er where the information and how and what "cost" can be achieved, is to determin e if the survey is to apply by phone, mail, or if you need to direct agents to c ollect information, establish the optimal number and prepare appropriate trainin g. 1.7 CRITICAL, CLASSIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT After gathering all relevant info rmation is needed to debug the data. To make critical information is essential k nowledge of the population by anyone debugging to detect lies in the answers, mi sunderstanding the questions, responses to the margin, not to mention all the po ssible causes of nullity or annulment of a question around a questionnaire. Sepa rated material "waste" with the information purified proceeds to establish the r espective classifications and with the help of worksheets, which sets out the ne cessary intersections between questions, the answers are sorted and prepared the models tab of the different variables involved in the investigation. Technologi cal progress and the popularization of computers make these tasks manually waste ful, can be made in short time. 1.8 TAB A table is a summary of information rega rding one or more variables, which provides clarity to the reader what is to be described, for easy interpretation of a table must have at least: an appropriate title which must be clear and concise. Table itself with the subtitles for inte rnal and quantification of the different items of the variables, and table footn otes make clear on special situations in the table, or give credit to the source of information.

National Training Service - SENA CENTRO AGRO-INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL TOURISM AND TECHNOLOGICAL Guaviare TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF INF ORMATION SYSTEMS

Guaviare

INTRODUCTION 1.9 The statistical information becomes clearer when presented in a n appropriate manner. Tables, charts and graphs facilitate the analysis, but car e must be taken to the variables that will be presented and how. It is not advis able to saturate a report with tables and graphs redundant rather than clarity, create confusion. Besides the choice of a particular table or graph to display t