Water and Wind Erosion
1. Soil Erosion You lose 500 million tons of agricultural land each year (15 c
m layer and area of 280.000ha) Consequences of land degradation: (a) a decreas
e in agricultural production potential of the land (b) removal, increasingly, th
e upper soil layers (c) decline and collapse of agriculture in many countries th
roughout its history (d) pollution of rivers, streams and other watercourses
1. Soil Erosion Consequences of land degradation: (e) destruction of river ban ks, roads, bridges, buildings, etc.. (F) flooding of lowlands, accumulation of s ediments in riverbeds, dams, irrigation areas, farmland, etc.. (G) rural exodus, exacerbating the social problems of large urban centers. (H) decline in product ion per unit of applied inputs
1. Soil erosion is the process of shedding, drag and accelerated deposition of soil particles caused by water and wind The main agents of erosion are water and wind erosion may be: (f) Normal or geological (b) In the accelerated ero sion accelerated erosion is the interference of man in the process of modifying the Earth's crust Agricultural soil erosion is the breakdown, transportation a nd deposition of particles as a result of the action of water and wind
The three-step process of soil erosion by water. (A) Drop water accelerating tow ards the ground, (b) splashed from the impact of the drop against a bare soil an d wet, and (c) A drop of water affect the detachment of soil particles that are transported and eventually deposited at sites downstream.
Displacement of particles by drag
1.3. Forms of Erosion
The three main types of soil erosion
1.4. Factors that influence erosion (1) Rain - intensity, duration and frequency (2) Nature of soil - texture, structure, porosity and permeability (infiltratio n capacity of water) (3) Land Surveying - steepness and length of ramp (4 ) Vege tation cover - vegetation, dead or alive, on the ground surface erosion Note In the rain and topography factors introduce energy, while the factors soil and veg etation to dissipate
2. Models for predicting soil erosion by water The models are a simulation of reality Importance of erosion prediction models (d) Research is costly and tim e consuming conventional (b) Extrapolation of experimental results Goals and a pplications of the models (h) predict soil loss (b) Pick-use practices and manag ement (c) Plan the use of an area (d) Prioritize the research
2.1. Equation Universal Soil Loss (USLE) The relationship between the loss (er osion) and factors affecting these losses: Rain (intensity, duration and frequ ency) Nature of soil Topography (slope and length of ramp) Management of s oil and crop practices conservationists The equation developed by WISCHMEIER
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