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DEVELOPMENT OF A VITRAL
The windows are formed with flat pieces of colored glass that are joined by stri
ps of lead, all of which is set in the doorway with a structure of iron or wood.
All you need are the pieces of colored glass, the rest is black, thus accentuat
ing the effects of color. It should be based on a model. According to this cut m
any pieces of glass as necessary. Then applied to each the corresponding grisail
le enamel and set the glass by subjecting it to the action of heat in an oven. T
his done, place the pieces of glass at the required place and bind with lead. Fi
nally, the panel applied the filling and the patina and the glass and is ready t
o be installed in the support structure.
Initially designed the stained glass in a sketch to scale in defining the compos
ition, colors and cuts of glass. The painting techniques that come closest to th
e nuances and effects of the glass are watercolor and pastel, but it is not poss
ible in a sketch show exactly the final aspect that will have the stained glass.
The lines of the seals can be represented by work
ZoS charcoal, soft pencil or marker. Call limitadar range of colors to those of which can be acquired layers of glass or that can be obtained through the use of enamel on clear glass. At this stage must be made all necessary corrections to achieve a reasonably satisfactory project from both the aesthetic and technical, although many details can only be defined when extending the natural scale draw ing.
Then the sketch is extended on cardboard to scale (1:1), can be extended by a gr
id, in photocopier, projecting a slide of a sketch or even using some computer p
rogram to enable the processing drawings. It is essential to know exactly the di
mensions of an aperture or frame within which the panel will fit. If it is a rec
tangular frame to be measured not only the four diagonal sides but also because
it is very possible that, even if they seem at first glance, the figure is irreg
ular. If nothing has curves is necessary to put cardboard templates on the frame
work and putting pressure on the forms are embossed on it. The window should be
drawn, leaving, in relation to the size of an aperture or frame, a
ale matrix is drawn with precision all shapes, shades and details, leaded lines are drawn with black marker and should be a constant size of 2.0 mm, which is th e approximate thickness of the soul of the profiles lead and will therefore that there will be separation between the different pieces of glass. At this stage, the design should make all necessary corrections to avoid impossible cuts, piece s of glass too long and narrow, the tips very sharp and difficult to cut corners . There is also converge to ensure that no more than three or four bullets to th e same point, without predominant ex leads in one direction and there are no str aight lines crossing the stained glass from side to side, if you want any of the se become part of the design features of the window should be taken into account that the panels will be weak and may require some type of reinforcement.
For cutting glass is placed on the matrix card and continue with leaded glass cu
tter trace lines,
, approximately 40 x 60 cms, so they can easily manipulate. You take the glass c utter so that it can be exercised with a pressure perpendicular to the glass, an d follow the score lines along the inner edge of the piece you are interested. W hen cutting should produce a characteristic sound of scratching, and Mark, never should be reviewed, to arrive at both ends to the edge of the glass sheet. Conc ave curves are cut by several incisions to weaken the party to remove and hittin g below. For convex curves so many cuts are made tangent to the curve as needed and removed the pieces one by one. To open the cut are given below him light blo ws with a metal tool, and is taken from the glass with both hands, one on each s ide of the incision, and making a dry strength down to the glass from breaking u p .ÂIf some edges are irregular can be polished with stone
er or Tiffany technique is needed electric polisher. When cutting glass is inevi table that produces waste, it is approximately 30%, ie to cut a stained glass wi ndow of a mt2 requires about 1.3 m2 of glass.
Painting On Glass
The essence of the painting of windows lies in controlling the passage of light
through the stained glass, since it is the color of the glass itself, not the pa
int applied, which creates the effect of color. You can create images on glass b
y painting, staining or fading, each of these techniques produce different effec
ts and the use of either or a combination, depending on aesthetic and expressive
requirements of the glass being worked out. The windows in the contours of the
image have traditionally been defined with strips of lead which, in turn, form t
he structure of the panel, often is in the detail elements such as stained glass
, ornaments, traits and features that aesthetic or technical considearaciones su
ch as size, shape, color, texture, or location in the composition is not
, combined with leaded glass give the game its characteristic line and color. Th e shadows and midtones are executed with the grisaille technique for volume effe cts, modeling and dithering, once painted the glass is heated in the oven where the paint is fused with it.
Paints, brushes, media and glass powder paints
They are a mixture of powdered glass, metal oxides and flux, ground to get an im
palpable dust. This work, in principle, can be done by the artist himself, but i
s almost impossible to get quality home means to obtain those with the technical
elements suitable for the production of paints. Some brands of glass enamels ar
e available in the U.S. are: General Color, Blythe, Ohommel, Crest Satellite, Am
aco, Thompson Enamels and Pemco. Colombia is only found in the gray and occasion
ally some glazes. The colors are divided into glazes and grisaille, the glazes a
re the yellow, ro-
ghten the already colored, the gray paintings are black and gray and used for sh ading of translucent colors. Additionally, using silver nitrate, only substance that stains the glass instead of paint, can produce a limited range of roasted y ellow.
Glazes can be used to achieve special color effects, or solve the window areas p
articularly difficult. The glazes are prepared from metal oxides mixed with glas
s powder, its particularity is that they are translucent. To achieve the desired result, as both grisaille enamel, are often required several firings, or even r epeated several times throughout the work, since the result of cooking is diffic ult to predict if you have no experience.
In painting the grisaille stained glass is used to create an opaque glaze that p
revents the passage of light in some areas and volume effects can be achieved, l
ights, shades, and linear work.
he intention is to apply a layer opaque to the light is black, in practice only the gray color is required, which can be found in intense tone, medium and of co urse, the medium gray is enough for any job.
Binders Media: are the substances that keep together the painting and give some
adhesion to the glass before firing, means binders melt in the heat of the oven.
In the painting of windows are used as binders gum arabic, 40% dissolved in wat
er, which facilitates the handling of the paint on the glass surface, and acetic
acid, also at 40%, to harden the paint. They can also be used as means oil of c
loves for detailed line work and pine oil to delay drying.
Brushes and equipment
Round brushes with long hair and soft linear work. Wide, flat brushes soft hair
to apply and manipulate the greyness. Hard bristle brushes to remove paint and p
lish. Spatula to spread the paint in the binder. Glass palette to mix paint with the medium. Droppers to dispense the gum and acid.ÂIt takes two paddles and tw o sets of brushes: one for the glaze and one for silver stain. Trace table to wo rk on light. Electric or gas oven that can reach up to 700 Â° C, to bake the pai nt. Pyrometer
Techniques of stained glass
The design of the image is drawn on a board called cutting pattern; in it are dr
awn all forms before any painting. The paint is applied to the glass on the tabl
e, tracing the lines to continue the pattern. It begins by outlining the appropr
iate color glass contours and details, if any, with scattered black grisaille ac
etic acid and a few drops of gum arabic; not be used too much gum or acetic acid
because the oven heat can produce bubbles. The paint should be fairly liquid bu
t rich in pigment, with the round brush with long hair, appropriate to the size
of line you want, we draw the lines
wed to dry the paint and scraping with a scalpel. When this delineated or "threa ded" is dry the greyness extends over the entire surface of the glass, using a s oft brush of an appropriate size to the area to be covered, as acetic acid and w ater repel each part, the paint this stage of the work is dispersed in water onl y a few drops of rubber to prevent dissolved delineated. Before the gray dries, it softens and paired with a wide brush of soft hair that moves rapidly in all d irections, almost without touching the glass. The final phase is laborious and m ore nuanced, tapping, cross-hatching and removing paint, until the effects of li
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