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Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture
Evolution of the computer. Abacus
The first calculator that has stories is the abacus, a Chinese from the fifth ce
Mechanical calculators Prior to the 40 already existing mechanical calculators, among them finds,: Charles Babbage's calculator First generation - ENIAC was in the 40s that brought the first vacuum tubes, the U.S. military needed a device t o perform calculations ballistics, was when they began their studies in this dir ection.
As we do not have much confidence in the results due to the constant burning of valves, each calculation was performed by three different circuits and the resul ts compared, two of them coincide, that was considered the right result. So, for example, 2 KB of memory would be needed 16 384 and valves for three lines x 3 = 16 384 49 152 valves. Computers were real monsters electronics occupying much s pace and consume much energy.
Second Generation was discovered in 1947 the first transistor, produced by Bell Telephone Laboratories. This discovery revolutionized the electronics, the circu its began to consume far less energy, occupy less space, it cost a good satisfac tory. The transistors were and are much more reliable than the valves. They are made of silicon crystal, the most abundant element on Earth. In 1954, Texas Inst ruments began commercial production of transistors. Similarly transistors in dig ital circuits were used to represent the two states: on / off, or zero / one. In the 60s and 70s due to the use of transistor circuits, the explosion happened, the boom in the use of computers. Occupying less space and had a cost satisfacto ry. In 1968 came the first computer, UNICAMP, an IBM 1130, with 16KB of memory a nd a disk of 1 MB, it was an event, he worked with punch cards. Ran programs in ASSEMBLER, FORTRAN and PL1.
0s, began the encapsulation of more than one transistor in the same housing, eme rged as the Integrated Circuit - IC, the first numbered about 80-10 transistors per capsule (chip).
Fourth Generation In November 1971, Intel introduced the first commercial microp rocessor, the 4004, invented by three Intel engineers. Primitive to today's stan dards, it contained only 2300 transistors and performed about 60,000 calculation s per second. Today, twenty-seven years later, a microprocessor is the most comp lex product mass-produced, with over 5.5 million transistors, running hundreds o f millions of calculations per second.
PCXT Operating at 4.77 MHz, progressed to 8 MHz, 10 MHz and 12 MHz slots slots k nown as ISA (Industry Standard Architeture). Microcomputers line PC XT 1981duran te produced from the eighties. They had their Motherboards based on many micropr ocessors, the Intel 8088, the NEC V20 and the 8086 Intel. These plates were orig inally to 8 bits and the plates were operating at 8 MHz PC AT PCs XTs evolved a bit and came the PC AT 286, a little more robust, already had a battery that had a chip, a small RAM, the information of computer hardware and data from the cal endar clock, even when it is turned off, the CMOS. Motherboards for the 286 alre ady operating with dual slots for 16-bit ISA cards, though still operating at 8 MHz.
PC 386 The novelty in 1990 was 386 DX in PC memory banks have 32-bit chips and V LSI (Very Large Scale Integration). Memories used in modules like SIPP (Single I n-Line Package) that were quickly replaced. The cards released in 1992,already used SIMMs (Single Inline Memory Modules) - RAM module with single row of contac ts aligned - expansion module memory (1 Mb, 4 Mb, 8 Mb, etc.). small plate on wh ich chips are mounted memory. The 30-pin modules or pathways work simultaneously with up to 8 bits. 5
With the 386 reaching speeds of 20 MHz, the memories have become sluggish and to compensate for this deficiency, the plates began to be produced with the use of external cache memory, equipped with up to 32K. The first 486 cards of 486, alr eady in the years 1993 and 1994, had VLS Bus (VESA Local Bus), operating with 32 bits, and can transfer up to 132 MB / s, well above the 8 MB / s of the ISA bus . (VESA - Video Electronics Standards Association). The plates produced until 19 93 which used modules of 8-bit and 30-pin needed to make up four groups of 32 bi ts required by the CPU 486.Outras cards already used blocks of 72 pins.
Pentium boards for Pentium CPUs have 64-bit bus and memory modules use 32 bits, these modules are used in pairs to form the 64 bits required. For technical reas ons, the large dissipation of the CPU chip, the same has having an microfan coup led to resfriálas. As implementations, these cards have ZIF socket (Zero Inserti on Force) for the CPU chip, bus type PCI (Peripheral Component Intercinnect) ope rating with 32-bit cache SRAM up to 512 kB in COAST type modules.
COAST (Cache on a Stick), similar to memory modules RAM SIMM type. Other impleme ntations are the interface cards embedded in the motherboard are: two IDE interf aces, an interface to drives, two serial interfaces and one parallel interface. Some manufacturers even provide cards with sound interfaces and embedded SVGA. S
ocket 7 Socket 7 is the most popular of the current sockets, contains 321 pins, operates with voltages 2.5ve 3.3v. Accepts Pentium chips from 75 MHz to 200 MHz K5, K6, 6x86, 6x86MX, and Pentium MMX. The Socket 7 boards usually incorporate v oltage regulators to allow claims below 3.3V.
Slot 1 Intel has totally changed the context to launch the use of socket Slot1, and housing the processors in the Pentium II line of cards. The advantage was be ing able to put on the same plate, adjacent to the CPU chip, the cache memory mo dules. This came to allow data transfers at high speeds between the CPU and cach e. The Slot1 has 242 pins and operates at voltages between 2.8 and 3.3V.
Differences between the line Pentium microprocessors The first question, and ver y important is the speed, ie the internal clock frequency. Somehow, between chip s of the same line, the higher the better clock, but other factors influence the speed of the system as a whole. We can cite, the chip set, the size of the cach e and how much RAM.
Pentium MMX P55C or evolution of multimedia applications involving graphics, ima ges and sounds become a necessity implementing instructions that improve their p erformance. Thus, Intel added to the Pentium, 57 new instructions designed for t his type of processing, are called MMX, or Multimedia Extentions. Are statements that include several common instructions, and are executed by hardware, making software producers in creating their programs are already taking advantage of th ese new instructions. These instructions provide a good gain in processing speed . The P55C presents an internal cache of 32 kB, double that of the P54C Pentiums . This can be translated into a performance improvement of around 10% in the so- called normal processes, not involving the functions MMX. Pentium II covers the processing power 32-bit Pentium Pro, the best performance in 16-bit programs and facilities of the Pentium MMX, working with internal clock of 266 MHz to 300 MH z and Your package with an external cache or cache 2 , which adjoins the process or, memory management easier and improves its performance.
Similar to the Pentium II Celeron Pentium II, a cheaper option, also operating w ith an external clock of 66 MHz and a core clock of 300 MHz, but without the cac he 2 and the advantages derived from it.
CLOCK The clock and performance is the number of cycles each second digital run. One cycle per second is called Hertz (Hz). For example, the power of CPFL oscil lates at 60 Hz, ie 60 cycles per second.The clocks range of microcomputers in m illions of Hertz, Mega Hertz MHz or a Pentium, for example, are around 300MHz, 3 00 million cycles per second, 300 million instructions a cycle. New technologies are enabling the execution of more than one instruction per cycle. Therefore, t he performance of a PC is quite related to the speed of your clock, but other va riables are relevant, such as memory size, cache size, bus use, and external clo ck. The clock described above, called internal clock sets the speed at which ins tructions are executed by the CPU, while the external clock it is the speed at w hich data travels between the CPU and memory and external devices. The external clock of most PCs is 66 MHz, very low compared to the internal clock. The clock generator circuit operates at 66 MHz external clock frequency. And to meet the i nternal clock multiplier is used to match the frequencies.
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